Sunday, January 11, 2015

Tea-totaler: Holmes, Professor Shanku, etc. (Part-V)

Also read: Part-I, Part-II, Part-III and Part-IV.

Kautilya: the wily one, a hat-tip to his considerable wiles and guile.  

The most famous student of the celebrated centre of learning, Takshaśilā (Takṣaśilā). The strategist, Chanakya, who later helped consolidate the empire of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, was also a senior teacher there. The institution is very significant in Buddhist tradition since it is believed that the Mahāyāna form/branch of Buddhism took shape there. Takshashila is perhaps best known because of its association with Chanakya. The famous treatise Arthashastra (Sanskrit for The knowledge of Economics) by Chanakya, is said to have been composed in Takshashila itself. Chanakya (or Kautilya), the Maurya Emperor Chandragupta and the Ayurvedic healer Charaka (is believed to have) studied at Takshaśilā. The ancient grammarian Pāṇini is also believed to have been associated with Takshaśilā. Generally, a student entered Takshashila at the age of sixteen. The Vedas (Books of Knowledge) and the Eighteen Silpas or Arts, which included skills such as archery, hunting, and elephant lore, were taught, in addition to its law school, medical school, and school of military science.

(Avalokiteśvara at Nalanda, 9th Century). The all-compassionate Bodhisattva: ineffable care and kindness overflowing endlessly. A bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. Avalokiteshvara is one of the most pivotal Bodhisattvas in Mahayana form of Buddhism. He is the Maha Guru, the Enlightened Soul of Boundless Compassion. Avalokiteshvara was given a thousand arms by the Buddha, to reach out and ease all the sorrows/lamentations found in the Universe. He has made a vow - to postpone his own Buddhahood (nirvana) till every sentient being in the universe achieves nirvana (have been guided to Buddhahood). He has a thousand arms to help, a thousand eyes to see and a thousand ears to hear the lamentations of people. He is depicted as 11-headed with faces in all directions. Avalokiteshvara comes to help, heal and light up the spiritual path. Avalokiteśvara is a noble being, a Lord (Skt: arya used in the way that Buddha Shakyamuni is said to have used the word - as meaning a person who is the best amongst humankind: intelligent, skilled, aware, cultured and sophisticated, in comprehension of the human condition) but in addition, possessing the merit and compassion to en-noble others. Avalokiteshvara is considered a 'Buddha Jewel'; superior not only to ordinary beings, but to other enlightened beings.  

(Avalokiteshvara Padmapani at Ajanta, 6th Century.) Bodhisattva ("Buddha-to-be") Avalokiteshvara - the Bodhisattva of Infinite Compassion, is a compassionate, empathic and determined bodhisattva, also referred to as Padmapani ("Holder of the Lotus"). Avalokitesvara is regarded in the Vajrayana teachings as a Buddha. In the Mahayana teachings he is regarded as a high-level Bodhisattva. (Buddhism = Boudhya Dharma, the way of the Buddha, the Wise One or the Enlightened One.) When Avalokitesvara was overcome with disenchantment and exasperation (after seeing and hearing the lamentations of sentient beings), his consciousness beseeched the Buddhas (the Wise One or the Enlightened One, possessor of the supreme knowledge that dispels all illusions) for help. Of the Buddhas who came to aid him, one was (the eternal Buddha, known as) Amitabha Buddha, who became his guru. (Note: Amitabha, [Sanskrit: "Infinite Light"] also called Amitayus ["Infinite Life"], hence Amitābha is often called "The Buddha of Infinite Light." Can Amitabha Buddha be equated with Vishnu, AnantaNaga? (The Eternal, endless, imperishable Vishnu?) Mahāyāna Buddhism relates Avalokiteśvara to the six-syllable mantra: oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ (translated as "the jewel in the lotus"). ... This is somewhat reminiscent of the Kausthubham or Kaustubha-mani - the unique/divine jewel believed to be adorning the neck of Lord Vishnu. Thus, Vishnu (the Preserver, Stabiliser and Maintainer aspect of the Eternal Divine/the Almighty) is also known as Kaustubha (one who wears the Kaustubham.) Kausthubham or Kaustubha-mani = Guru-Ratna. The many arms of Avalokiteshvara symbolises that humankind should accept everyone as deserving of acceptance, love and compassion, and that there should be no discrimination.

Avalokiteshvara may be the most well-known and much-loved of the iconic bodhisattvas. Throughout all schools of Mahayana Buddhism, the noble Avalokiteshvara is venerated as the ideal of compassion. It is the willingness to understand and bear the pain of others. Avalokiteshvara is the manifestation of Amitabha Buddha, who represents mercy and wisdom. The bodhisattva is said to appear anywhere to help all beings in distress. The Sanskrit name "Avalokiteshvara" is interpreted many ways: "The Hearer of Humankind's lamentations"; "The Lord Who Looks Down"; "The Lord Who Looks in Every Direction." From the 12th century onwards, however, in much of Asia Avalokiteshvara took the form of a mother-goddess of mercy. Exactly how this happened is not clear. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the cult of the Virgin Mary was gaining popularity in Europe. Was there some cultural cross-pollination the historians don't know about? Sometimes the bodhisattva is pictured with features of both genders. (Implying ArdhaNarishvara?) It is considered symbolic of the bodhisattva's transcendence of dualities, such as male-female gender distinctions. It is also believed that the bodhisattva can manifest in whatever form is best suited for the situation. (Yashoda caring for Krsna like a mother, to 'look after' like a mother?) There are more than 30 iconographic representations of Avalokiteshvara in Buddhist art. The number of heads and arms the bodhisattva displays, the bodhisattva's body position (posture), and by what is carried in the bodhisattva's hands distinguishes these. There is often a small figure of Amitabha gracing the bodhisattva's head. He may hold a lotus, mala beads, or a vase of nectar. He may be standing, in meditation, or seated in a "royal ease" pose. The bodhisattva often has multiple heads and arms, which symbolise his limitless capacity to perceive suffering and to help all beings. According to legend, when Avalokiteshvara first heard the suffering of humankind his head burst from pain. Amitabha, his teacher, took the pieces of his head and remade eleven heads in its place. Then Amitabha gave Avalokiteshvara a thousand arms with which to ease all suffering. (When an individual sees and hears the suffering of others and responds to that suffering, he or she is the head and arm of the bodhisattva. This is known as bodhicitta, the idea or mind of Enlightenment, Buddha-nature. Developing love and compassion quickens progress on the spiritual path. It heals [helps overcome] mental continuum (lack of clarity of concentration) and 'awakens' the spiritual nature.)

It is not possible to tyag without bhog. Also, what if the Buddha-avatar were to be a woman? (The story about Siddhartha Gautama deserting (her) two-year-old son and home in the service of a greater cause – has this story come about later?) We tend to associate the Buddha-avatar (Siddhartha Gautama, the ninth avatar of Vishnu) as a pacifist figure. However, neither humans nor human society is perfect. It has never been perfect. (In fact, a perfect society will be dysfunctional.) One cannot promote pacifist aspects without first creating the conditions for the same. So the proverbial churning (euphemistically referred to as: Asvamedha Yagna or Purushamedha Yagna by the ancients - events and efforts [yagna] brought forth by the intellectual aspects [medha] of the allegoric ashva or Purusha [the avatar]) is likely to have happened). Also, avatars (the highest avatar that is, the Eternal Divine in human form) are unlikely to appear unless things are messy (as per the Bhagavad Gita). And so, there is always going to be substantial challenges (including socio-political aspects) associated with the appearance of the highest Avatar. There is a specific purpose for the appearance; it is not merely for sharing philosophical points of view or teaching. (A study of the archeological findings, artifacts etc of the Gandhara Civilisation could provide more clarity.)

The above ancient seal is one of the Indus Yogi Seals (the other being the Pasupati Seal). It depicts a deity with three faces (Brahma-Vishnu-Shivah? Keshavah?) seated in yogic position on a throne, with the hands resting on the knees, wearing bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress. The heels are pressed together and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne (vajrasana?). The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals. Five symbols of the Indus hieroglyphs appear on either side of the headdress, which is made of two outward projecting curved horns, with two upward projecting points, with a branch with three prongs or peepal leaves emerging from the center. A Buddha-like figure? BG 10.26: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "among trees, I am the peepal (ashvattha)." ... The Peepal (aśvatthaḥ) - the Bodhi Tree, the Tree of Enlightenment is the personification of Vishnu/Keshavah/Narayana/Hari. The Bodhi tree, the Tree of Enlightenment, is also the symbol of Gautama Buddha's message in general, since the Buddha (the Enlightened One or the Wise One) had overcome mundane (banal, narrow, selfish) aspects - of geography, language, history, culture etc. The Buddha belongs to all of humankind. (Note: Buddha figures are typically seated in either vajra posture or with the legs extended forward. The latter posture can be found with both Shakyamuni Buddha and Maitreya ("the Buddha of the Future.") Figures with 'Buddha Appearance' can have a variety of body colours. Shakyamuni Buddha is generally described as golden in colour. Amitabha Buddha is reddish-hued. Vaishajyaguru, the Buddha of healing and medicine, appears blue in colour. A Buddha also wears the patchwork robes of a monk.)

Kesha = hair. The three faces: keshavah - one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva-Rudra). Keshavah can also mean: One whose rays illumine the cosmos, possibly a reference to (in a manner of speaking) the vast unfathomable reservoir of timeless wisdom, knowledge, inspiration and consciousness. Feluda's Gyanpeeth. Prajapati Brahma is the permanent authority of the universe (Brahmaanda, Brhmaanda - the 'Cosmic Egg' - since the universe is egg-shaped or elliptical), the motive power and guiding force behind the mathematically precise universe. (Brh = to grow, aanda = egg = egg-shaped or elliptical, having the shape of an ellipse.)

The Shikha ("crest" or crowning glory, a long tuft of hair on the top of the head) is associated with Chanakya as well as Krsnaa-Draupadi (Panchali, the human identity of the Krsna-avatar). 

The true Buddha head is bare, covered only with ringlets of hair and surmounted by a swelling (a cranial knob, ushnisha protuberance), the "uṣṇīṣa", considered one of the thirty two traditional "great marks" (Maha-Laksana) of a Buddha. The first representations of the Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama, Gautama Shakyamuni) in the 1st century CE in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara represent the Buddha with a topknot. The "ushnisha" (cranial protuberance or the crown of hair: bunched-up hair, symbolic jata?) is also associated with the Buddha. It is a three-dimensional oval at the top of the head of the Buddha. It is indicative of great wisdom and Self-realisation, symbolising the spiritual power of the Buddha's enlightenment. In early Boudhya Dharma (way of the Buddha) it was associated with a Cakravartin (an ideal and wise ruler, Lord of Mankind) and a true Kshatriya (protector/Rakshak, an all-purpose problem solver, upholder of ethics/worthy values/principles/justice). BG 10.27: || narāṇāḿ ca narādhipam || ~ "and among humans I am the monarch" (Cakravartin). Krsna is also known as Keshavah (kesha = hair) and Shikhandee, the Lord who has a peacock feathered-crest. Does it indicate a Shikha? Can the ushnisha imply large brain or big brain (brainpower - epitome of intellect and sagacity)?

Being pragmatic, being a realist (a man of the world) is not the same as being self-serving or indulging in blatant/myopic opportunism or compromising for short-term gains or being a hypocrite. (Feluda is a man of the world. However, his ability to do good is not muddled by compromise on the essentials. He is clear-eyed. He does not lack spine either.) One's intent, purpose and objectives along with the outcome of one's thoughts and actions (accomplishments etc) are what matters. This is dharma. This is karm-yog. ... Chanakya is incorrectly perceived as a selfish, unfeeling and cunning person. Whatever the Acharya did was for the larger good. (His qualities, traits, purpose, characteristics, attribute - i.e. behavioural aspects [acharan] - were those of an Arya, a noble person. He was not ignoble.) Force-fitting great personages into narrow [shallow] templates is unhelpful. Chanakya did not seek power for the sake of power; instead, the master maneuvered and out-maneuvered (not to be misconstrued as manipulation, that is indicative of selfish motives), in a series of masterful strokes - eschewing tokenism and armchair/textbook moralism. Had Chanakya done otherwise, that would have exemplified "Trishanku" (who lacked the patience, plan of action, strategic foresight/far-sightedness, self-belief/self-motivation and capacity for longer-term effort, and instead sought instant results/success). Chanakya was a do-er with a rare clarity of purpose, vision and sense of kartavya, and not merely a talker or idealistic dreamer. Chanakya's clear-eyed and dispassionate/objective nature (coupled with monk-like self-discipline and focus) is perhaps misconstrued as being unfeeling (all-intellect-no-heart). Chanakya eschewed self-preservation or verbosity - to merely crib and carp and do nothing. Instead, the master was proactive, and took the initiative. Possessing the courage of the mind to make things happen, and the mettle of grit and fortitude (inner strength, the strength of his karma), Chanakya was clear about the priorities (i.e. clearly understood what needed to be done), and more importantly, how to go about it. Self-made and selfless, Chanakya was an extraordinary personage for/at an extraordinary turn of our history: a Renaissance personage (Yug Purush, a problem-solver). He was motivated by a sense of kartavya. (A sense of meaningful purpose or a passionate commitment to anything; to make efforts with enthusiasm and great satisfaction; to not let oneself become so discouraged (by circumstances etc) that one gives up on something that is important (especially if it was for the larger good, for the benefit of society). Does the story of Chanakya and the Buddha converge? Or is Chanakya a manifestation of Guru-Ratna? Chanakya also recognised and acknowledged calibre even in staunch adversaries. (A shallow person with a petty or small mind could not have done this. Greatness or mettle cannot be acquired, just as respect cannot be demanded. Acquired characteristics can be reversed through awareness and conscious effort. However, leadership or mettle [innate, intrinsic or ingrained ability or personality traits, i.e. being born with a particular biological capability] cannot be acquired. Character cannot be acquired. A change of circumstances will not repair character flaws (weaknesses, deficiencies). The intrinsic (innate) personality traits of an individual are merely the reflection of the personality of the soul.)

Bheeshma was learned, had stature, character and personality, as well as qualities and abilities that were fit for kings. He had deep knowledge of political science and statesmanship. He was not needlessly aggressive and also had a sense of kartavya. He was a true Kshatriya (upholder or defender of justice), a peerless warrior, and did not exhibit anger etc unnecessarily. Despite his stature and gravitas, he did not want to antagonise Duryodhana and his accomplices (which included Karna)? Or was he helpless/uncomfortable/constrained/ill-at-ease - like a fish out of water? Despite his stature, wisdom and capability and despite being cognisant of everything, he was totally sidelined/ignored/disregarded due to the hegemony of Duryodhana, etc?

Our attitude towards the ancients or towards earlier civilisations is condescending to say the least. This is due to our linear view of history. But then, subjective history or ignorance/quackery in the garb of science is unhelpful. A scientific temper is necessary. There should [also] be excellent scholars in Sanskrit - to properly interpret the ancient texts (and to clear the many embellishments, subjective aspects, etc). The ancient scientific (in science, mathematics and medicine) or for that matter literature and philosophy, cultural and creative heritage (discoveries, advancements etc) belongs to all of humankind. It is a common heritage, and therefore cannot be monopolised or appropriated. (The concept of Hindu Civilisation is of much recent vintage, it also has a narrow scope. It is Indus-SarasvatI Civilisation.) There is a need for more books (and informed discussion) on the Indus-SarasvatI Civilisation. It could [actually] be an amalgamation of two distinct civilisations (the upper Indus region and the lower Indus region) that also shared commonalities and other ties.

The ancients possessed immense artistic imagination. However, whether mere artistic imagination was enough to have imagined things that resembled nuclear armaments, aviation technology, IVF therapy and genetic engineering (and new reproductive techniques; reproductive genetics, including cloning, stem cells, assisted reproductive technologies) is debatable. (Did Lord Brahma [the Creator – implying the genius cosmic scientist] aka Satyajit Ray's Professor Shanku, share these so-called artistic imagination through the Saptarishi etc?) The ancients had much more knowledge, imagination and technology than we care to understand. They were also aware of holistic healing and healthcare. (They may have [however] been unaware of some of the health issues, etc that modern humans do.)  Also, some of the technology mentioned in our ancient texts could be an indication of the future. (However, 'Immaculate Conception' [implying: miraculous baby] may not have been due to reproductive genetics. Or was it? Or did it have something to do with Mary (AnantaNaga Vishnu, Satyavati) and Jesus (Yashoda, Bheeshma, VasukiNaga) instead of Mary's purported spouse, Joseph (SheshaNaga, Shantanu, Karna) – who probably was away at the time? Thus, 'miraculous'? Or was there a severance of ties that others were unaware of? Sita's agni-pariksha could imply agni-path: seemingly insurmountable odds/challenges/obstacles (difficult situations, etc). However, could it also imply DNA test? In which case, Lava and Kusha may not have been twins. Devavrata undertook a kathor vrata (a great/solemn vow: pratigya, pledge of silence?) and [thereafter] became known as Bheeshma. What could the vow/pratigya/pledge (vrata) have been about? A self-surrendering, self-effacing love, and that Satyavati's faith in him will not be compromised? To stand by Satyavati no matter what the circumstances; to look after her, to fulfill all her needs, to never forsake, to not let her feel lonely/desolate, to be someone who Satyavati could call her own? Bheeshma: spouse or spousal equivalent (beau) to Satyavati? Satyavati sought solace in the arms of Devavrata, and he gladly acquiesced? Or did he offer a shoulder to lean on? Destiny [bhagya-vidhaata] chose Vyasa's DNA to rule Hastinapura. Bheeshma = Veda Vyasa. Did they have a baby together when Santanu was away? Or did Satyavati leave him? In which case the notion that Vedic marriages were airtight may be incorrect. The Eklavya-Dronacharya story: Between Ananta and Vasuki, who was Eklavya and who Dronacharya?)

The ancient texts refer to "Deva" (interpreted as: gods or demi-gods). However, it is more likely that the ancients referred to evolved beings (evolved souls, evolved humans) by the honorific "Deva" (divine beings or enlightened souls) - possibly on the basis of their kundalini-energy or intellectual calibre: knowledge, sober wisdom (astuteness, a broader vision, lucidity, foresight), skills, abilities, sagaciousness (critical thinking concerning longer-term developments) and so on. These evolved or enlightened souls (Deva) have [also] been given various other honorifics, such as: "Manu" (honorific for law-givers), "Saptarishi" (seven exceptionally learned and wise personages of rare intellect, possibly devoted to cultural, scientific and literary pursuits, to impart knowledge to humankind), "Naga" (implies exceptional intellectual ability - philosophers, thought leaders, literary or academic stalwarts/pioneers), "Chiranjivi" (eternal beings – possibly assigned governance or administrative responsibility), "Gandharva and Apsara" (responsible for artistic tradition: the performing arts - songs, dance and music), so on and so forth. The Deva (evolved or enlightened souls) may not be part of the usual karmic cycle; they are [perhaps] there to assist the Eternal Divine/the Almighty (even when the highest avatar is not physically present amongst humankind, manava). 

The Dasavataar: link. (There is no multiplicity of divinity. The Eternal Divine/the Almighty merely has been portrayed through myriad honorifics, imagery, iconography etc for the purposes of comprehension (various situations, etc). There is no multiplicity of the highest avatar either. It is all one and the same.)

'Madhura Madhura Dhvani Baaje': link. (To SarasvatI).

'Aaloker Ei Jharna Dharaaye Dhuiye Dao': link. (Seeking enlightenment for the soul and dispelling of all pessimism, retrogressive aspects and prejudice. The transcending of metaphoric impediments (barriers of the mind, narrow/selfish thought process) = mist-dispelling, the dispelling of the metaphoric 'fog' (tamas) of intellectual inertia, slothfulness, illusion, indifference, ignorance, prejudices, retrograde mindset and obsolete aspects, and so on.)

'Tomaay Gaan Shonabo': link. (Dukhajaganiya: link.)

Bidrahi (link): The imagery and metaphors are top-notch. Bidrahi is a poetic masterpiece. No other composition has been able to bring out the essence of the Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop (the Universal Form) – the all-encompassing form of the divine.

'Mahabidya Adyashakti': link. (Mahabidya = SarasvatI, the deity of knowledge, wisdom, literature, creativity, music, arts, culture and eloquence. Parama Prakriti = personification of nature (prakriti). Prashobini = perennial knowledge stream. Kalika = Kali, Mariamma. (Amma or Mother is a respectful honorific. It could be Maria or Mariam.) 

Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore and (Bidrahi Kabi) Nazrul were like Gupy Gyne and Bagha Byne.

BG 10.27: || uccaiḥśravasam aśvānāḿ viddhi mām amṛtodbhavam || ~ "Of horses know Me to be Uccaiḥśravā (Uchchaihshravas) produced from the churning of the kshira ('kshira-sagara manthan') for the metaphoric piyush, celestial ambrosia (amṛtodbhavam or amṛta-udbhavam)". It is very likely (in a manner of speaking) a reference to 'Snow White' (SarasvatI) and the 'Seven Dwarfs' (Saptarshi, the seven exceptionally learned, wise personages/sages). Uccaiḥśravā (Uchchaihshravas) - the snow-white and seven-headed flying horse, considered the best of horses and king of horses, was [allegorically] produced/created during 'kshira-sagara manthan' - for the metaphoric celestial ambrosia (piyush – euphemism for hope, optimism, positive aspects). 'Kshira-sagara manthan' alludes to intellectual manthan (intellectual stimulation, rigeour and vigour, fresh perspectives, approach/thinking), to, in a manner of speaking, 'awaken' kundalini-energy – to help expand the mind (broadening of the mindset, thinking process).

"If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales." – Albert Einstein.

Apparently funny/hilarious tales, music, poetry, art and even comic books are like deep oceans. They are creative insight of an unparalleled originality, superlative. One may have to dive deep below what sometimes looks like shallow waters. The authors/creative brains behind these tales, rhymes, music, poetry, art and comic books are remarkable people – geniuses, they are pride and joy of their nations and environment they came from. These intellectually and creatively gifted people have given a fillip to creativity and infused new vigour in art, culture, attitude, etc.

Kalpataru or Kalpavriksha is a unique tree, a divine tree, a celestial tree or a spiritual tree. Kalpavriksha has many spiritual, medicinal, ecological and botanical values for ecological balance. E.g., the Banyan tree, the Peepal tree, the Parijaat Tree, the coconut tree, etc. BG 10.25: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "Of all trees I am the Peepal (aśvatthaḥ)" - fig tree (it could imply: Banyan tree as well as the Peepal [aśvatthaḥ], or maybe both). The highest avatar symbolises or personifies the Peepal tree? (Kalpa = epoch, maha-yuga; vriksha = tree. The appearance of the highest avatar is at the cusp of two maha-yuga.)

The holy fig tree [therefore] holds a very important place in Indian civilisation (be it with respect to faith, medicinal and social point of view), and hence is worthy of worship. It is the tree of eternal life. The aśvatthaḥ symbolises the continuity of life because the tree itself lives and grows for hundreds of years. The heart-shaped leaves on long, thin stems shimmer easily in a light breeze. This sacred tree stands for wisdom, knowledge, enlightenment, happiness, prosperity, peace, longevity and good luck. Every peepal tree is a reservoir of oxygen. People who stay near it have a plentiful supply of oxygen. This sacred tree gives ample shade to humans, animals and birds alike. The holy fig tree has medicinal properties too. 

Aśvatthaḥ means "where the horse stood/sheltered". (A reference to the allegoric unicorn? Shakuntala and Shakuni? Sheltered [cared for - cherished, looked after, nurtured, supported] by Shakuni, thus Shakuntala? Jatayu and Sampaati? Krsna and Yashoda?) In Sanskrit, this tree is known as Aśvatthaḥ, Bodhivriksha and Plaksha. This tree represents the entire cosmos: 'Shva' in Sanskrit means tomorrow, 'a' indicates negation, and 'tha' means one that stands or remains. Hence, Aśvatthaḥ can imply: "One which does not remain the same tomorrow" (implying obverse of stagnation), or the universe itself. The aśvatthaḥ tree is quite remarkable because it grows both upwards as well as vice versa. The branches themselves morph into roots, so even if the original tree decays and perishes, its branches underneath are young and continue to enclose the parent. This eternal life of the Peepal tree has inspired many philosophers; this tree has its own symbolic meaning of enlightenment and peace. In the Upanishads, the fruit of the peepal is thus used as an example to explain the difference between the body and the soul. The body (the physical form) is like the fruit which feels and enjoys things, while the soul (jiva-atma, human soul) is like the seed, which is inside (the fruit) and therefore witnesses things. Tree of Roots above; branches below; this aśvatthaḥ is reputed to be imperishable; whose leaves are the Vedas; One who knows this is a knower of all the Vedas. (Kathopanishad and the Bhagavad Gita.) Vedas = Books of Knowledge. Knower of the Vedas = an enlightened person (not ignorant, non-deluded).

Two illustrious persons. Sitting beside Rabindranath Tagore and sharing his thoughts is like spending one's days beside the sacred River drinking deep of honeyed wisdom. Indeed.


Hindu people are awaiting the incarnation of Keśava, the Kalkiḥ-avatar (Viṣṇu-Kalkiḥ or Kalkiḥ-Maitreya). Those following Boudhya Dharma are looking forward to the coming of Buddha Maitreya (the next Buddha to be, the Buddha-of-the-future; Buddha Shakyamuni, also known as Gautama Buddha was the most recent Buddha to have appeared); Christians are awaiting the second coming of Christ; the Jewish people are waiting for the appearance of the Moshiach [mashiach, mashiah, moshiah] or "Messiah", and so forth. ... What if there were to be an all-encompassing Avatar (manifestation of the divine in human form)? Would it only signify the Universal Form (Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop) – that encompasses everything? That the whole of humankind prays to the same divine power? Or would religion as a tag be rendered redundant? Will religion [thereafter] imply a divine experience, religion in the higher sense, and dharma: to do one's bit, in one's small way, for the betterment of societal aspects (mindsets, values, social behaviour, ethics etc), for the benefit of humankind? A spiritual experience – empathy, kindness, humanistic concern, values and ideals and the like, instead of narrow-mindedness, selfish aspects, schisms etc? (The way an individual thinks shapes the mindset, perception and behavioural aspects. Negative stereotypes convey normative "concepts" or assumptions of a culture, gender, behaviours, and so on. Overcoming stereotypes = changing mindsets through changing the language. Mindset change is vital for progress. Changing the language changes the mindset. Changing the mindset can [therefore] have a huge positive impact on societal aspects.)

The Ramayana and the Mahabharata are considered great epics, literary masterpieces, and/or events that [probably] happened in the distant past (pre-historic etc). However, could the events associated with the highest Avatar (the maha-avatar, the Eternal Divine in human form) be considered as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata? That would mean these are eternal, and [therefore] it is not possible to date the divine. Are the Buddha and Chanakya one and the same? Or do their narratives converge? Is Chanakya a manifestation of the Guru-Ratna? Can the events associated with them [also] be considered as the Ramayana and/or the Mahabharata? What about Jesus and Mary? Equivalent to Radha and Krsna? (Goddess Kalika is also called Mariamma. Jishnu is a reference to Arjuna. It means, the irrepressible one. What is the etymology of Jesus? Christ is also pronounced as Kristu. Jesus is also Yesu or Jishu. Could Yashoda be a variant of Yasodharā or Yashodhara? Yasodharā or Yashodhara to Yashu, eventually to Yesu etc?) Do the narratives involving the Buddha, Chanakya, Jesus and Mary converge? How did Jesus and Mary become anglicized or Europeanised? Something that historians are unaware of? Something to do with the Portuguese? Or something to do with the 'rejection' of the Buddha-avatar? Or something to do with the Roma people whose ancestors migrated to Europe from areas that are part of the Harappa region (the upper Indus region)? Is Roma a variant of Rama? Where is the real Ayodhya? (Ayodhya has evolved from Ayudhya. It means, Invincible City).

If the avatar of the future (the Kalkiḥ-avatar, refer Part-III) were to be Rama, then can the events etc be termed Ramayana? If the Kalkiḥ-avatar is also Maitreya Buddha then Bodhisattvas Vajrapani and Avalokiteshvara are likely? If Maanikya (Gem of the Sun, a reference to the highest avatar) appears, Kaustubha-mani (Guru-Ratna, refer Part-II) is likely? If the Kalkiḥ-avatar (the 10th maha-avatar of Vishnu) is also the second coming of Christ, then Jesus and Joseph are likely? Vasuki and Shesha respectively? Arjuna (Yashoda, Bheeshma, Radha, Sampaati, Nandi, etc) and Karna (Ramachandra aka Ravana/Kumbhakarna/Vibhisana, Shishupala, Angulimala, Andhaka/Bhringi, Pandu, Mahisasura, etc)? So, the leela could consist of a combination of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, Crucifixion, etc (if the situations, circumstances were to be similar)? It could [therefore] provide clarity and [thereby] also the opportunity to correct the subjective aspects in the narrative (of the epics and the many stories)? And, if this avatar were to [also] be an all-encompassing avatar (manifestation), then de-religionisation is likely? In the sense that rigidity, prejudices, obsolete and retrograde aspects, monopolisation of the divine, and clout of religionistas etc is likely to be curbed? And the realisation that the whole of humankind prays to the same Eternal Divine (despite myriad imagery, honorifics, iconography etc) is likely to come about? A veritable prayaga (yoga or confluence of all of humankind)? Therefore: sAmya or śamaḥ (inclusiveness, integration, assimilation, cohesion), mayitree (camaraderie, conviviality), aikya (commonalities, shared civilisational values), collective pragati (progress, broadening of the thinking proces, open-mindedness) and shantih (peace, co-existence)? (In the words of Tagore, 'Borisho dhara-majhe shantiro baari': link.) 

The avatar is also Leela Purusha-uttama. Perhaps some details about the highest Avatar has been shared so that humankind can recognise the avatar, as well as Shesha, Vasuki, the other characters that people the many stories... and [thereby] observe the leela. However, unlike the earlier avatars (who might have been part of a certain geographic realm), for the avatar-of-the-future, the whole world is likely to be the leela-kshetra. ... It is not whodunit, but how-it-is-done, since SheshaNaga (symbolising fixed mindset an inability or [perhaps] refusal (out of arrogance/conceit/vainglory) to change/evolve [undergo progressive transformation] from one's set way of thinking and behavioural aspects, SheshaNaga also symbolises all vices in humankind) is the eternal adversary, and so, it is an eternal duel of wits. Eventually: Satyameva Jayate. (AnantaNaga will triumph over SheshaNaga (who is also Ravana, Hiranyakashipu, Kumbhakarna, Shishupala, Satyabhama/Karna, and so on), Madhu-Kaitabha, Duryodhana etc). Yadavasthali could be euphemism for the fadeout of the lineage [influence, clout, etc] of Balarama, [very likely] the Andhakas (a clan/group with a bison or buffalo totem/insignia, refer Part-III), due to their intemperance, arrogance and lack of concern for the welfare of the populace. The Vrishni (a clan/group with a zebu bull totem/insignia) would have thrived. (Balarama is equated with Lakshmana – manifestation of Shesha. Balarama is also considered as the elder sibling of the Krsna-avatar, implying they were related. Balarama is also depicted with a cup. A devotee of Bacchus? Turning the pursuit of pleasure into an artistic provenance? Gross excess and unbridled abandon? Devoted or passionately attached to some particular pursuit of Bacchus? Balarama = Joseph?)

'Aami Roope Tomaay': link. (Not so much as physical looks, but what he would be as a person (well-liked by everyone, unmistakable charisma, the qualities of head and heart, committed, responsible, genuine, warm, decent, a sensitive lover, etc? The poet is referring to ecstatic pleasure). Tagore, the emperor of metaphors, has used the analogy of a river and the effects of waves, currents, tides, and storms on the waters - to convey his ardent feelings, emotions and intense passion (an intense love and steadfast, enduring loyalty, infused with tenderness of heart, deep affection, great warmth, affinity or loving passion, a compelling enthusiasm or fervent desire.) Intense love does not measure; it just gives. There is no charm equal to tenderness of heart. ... The Radha-Krsna raas-leela is [perhaps] not what it has been made out to be. It is a passionate attraction and undiminished love/romance between two people who are much more than soulmates (though [very likely] it is imperceptible to others). "Raas-leela" [however] has become [largely] folk-oriented dramatisation – possibly an outcome (and combination) of various factors/aspects that came about in the last millennium or so, including numerous retelling, and histrionic excesses.)

This imagery could be of Vasuki and Ananta. (Vishnu reclining on the thousand-headed AnantaNaga = Vishnu is AnantaNaga: imperishable, endless kundalini-energy, brainpower). 'Padaprante Rakho Shhebake': link. (Refer Part-IV for the imagery of AnantaNaga and SheshaNaga.) There can be many soulmates but only one twin soul. ... Sitting at the feet of Vishnu: devoted, to cherish (characterised by loyalty, affection and attachment), attentive and virtuous, remaining at a distance yet never abandoning or forsaking; accepting a humble place and remaining there. This is a symbol of those who accept sufferings and adversity. Even if one does not like the position, to persevere and not abandon it. This is a symbol of the upright, the humble/modest, and the wise; it is a symbol of the straightforward and the simple-hearted. A dasa (a suitable helper/assistant, a confidant, someone who is eager to help, assist, or attend to.) Such a person has a humble attitude, and a desire to help others, to think about everyone else first before thinking about oneself. (This is reminiscent of Bodhisattva ("Buddha-to-be") Avalokiteshvara.) To be 'under one's thumb' is a phrase implying to be completely under someone's influence. A figurative expression that alludes to being completely under another's control, at someone's command, at someone's service (to do someone's bidding). The early references probably relates to falconry. (When the birds were on a leash, it was customary to hold the leash under the thumb so as to keep control of the bird.) It is also used for a man who is happiest when wrapped around the finger of his beloved wife. A relationship where the husband willingly and happily surrenders to the woman he loves and trusts. He is happiest that way. It could be an expression of the depth of his feelings. Many could have very outwardly dominant and strong personalities, successful in their social lives. But deep down they may be happiest if they can surrender to the woman that they love and trust. It could be considered as an expression of love, affection and adoration for her. By 'submitting to the wife' only means: 1. Becoming more caring and attentive. 2. Making the married-life more understanding, dedicated and loyal to each other. 3. Making the wife queen of the affairs (decision-making, opinions etc.) There is no ego or negativity involved. Being protective = to be a caring spouse: to show concern, to be attentive, understanding, dedicated/committed; affectionate and adoring, to cherish etc. In colloquial parlance: joru ka ghulam. (Vasuki is Shiva's Naga. This is self-explanatory.)

The knight-in-shining-armour is giving a foot massage/foot rub? Watching the feet while he massages them, a tiny hint of a smile on the face: he wants someone to know he's enjoying it. Helpful. Caring. Seductive. (Many attribute KS to Nandi.)

'Praan Chaay Chhokkhu Na Chaay': link. (There is no greater deception than self-deception. Unable to come to terms with something? Unable to get over something or someone? Darcy-esque? Tall. Handsome. Swoon-worthy. A bit unapproachable (a bit more outgoing and social would be nice). A man of means (self-disciplined, works diligently towards his dreams and goals). Slightly brooding (that "quizzical brow" look, always so very serious, a bit of levity would be nice). Proud (of who he is and will be). A bit of masculine arrogance. A fashionable man. Grooms himself - but for whom? In an effort to be a man about town? His lips are sealed, but there are things going on under the surface that none does immediately understand? Can put on a pretty good front when he is asked how he is: an expert at smiling while crying on the inside? Wearing the happy, nonchalant mask but hoping no one finds out the truth? Doing well in certain aspects but there is another aspect that's a total mess? ... Who was Rukmini (possibly Prince Rukmi) – who did not want to antagonise Jarasandha? Krsna and Rukmini, as per the narrative, were married at Dvarka. Did a marriage happen that [perhaps] did not last long? Engagement? A long-term relationship? Rukmi was a vassal of Jarasandha; his goals/objectives did not converge with those of the Krsna-avatar? Or were the circumstances unhelpful? They parted amicably? Or was it Rukmi's considered decision, which Krsna understood and accepted? (Rukmi was not part of the Dharma-Yuddha, "battle" of ideals, principles, values etc – for a better society to emerge). Was Rukmi lacking in courage, faint-hearted? A cagey (quiet, pawky, shrewd/crafty, beguiling) opportunist? Hesitant about committing oneself? Or did he make a seemingly conscious decision (when faced with a choice: between his personal goals/objectives/dreams and Krsna)? Krsna seems not to have held a grudge against him, as can be understood from the tulabharam story (involving Rukmi's humble offering of a tulsi leaf vis-a-via Satyabhama's ego, arrogance and wealth/covetous or coarse materialism). Garland could be a reference to what? Accolades, encomiums, etc or did he remarry? And yet, he was unhappy, unable to find happiness? Akin to a bed of thorns/nails? A persistent feeling of emptiness? (Accomplishments will seem empty if there is no one to share in the glory.) Guilt? Despair? Shame/embarrasment - for having deserted someone? Still carrying a torch for someone? Thinking of someone all the time? (Can't get over someone, lamenting a lost love who's unavailable, especially where one party has moved on? Torch alludes to love or passion.) Who was Mirabai? (Mirabai took no interest in her spouse Bhojraj (also known as Rana Kumbha), since she believed herself to be married to Krsna for whom she developed in her heart the most intense love and devotion. Krsna had stolen her heart. She spent her time talking and singing to the idol. When questioned about her marital responsibilities, Mira is said to have responded that it was Krsna to whom she was married. She could not bear the thought of marrying someone else when her heart was filled with thoughts of every nature, all about her Krsna. Her mind, emotions and soul belonged to Krsna. Mira's love for Krsna was at first a private thing but at some moments it overflowed into an ecstasy that led her to sing and dance in public with others who shared her enthusiasm. Her bhajans are in passionate praise of Krsna, wherein she describes her unconditional love for her Lord. She composed countless poems drenched with separation and longing. She speaks of a personal relationship with Krsna as her lover, lord and master. The characteristic of her poetry is complete surrender. Her longing for union with Krsna is predominant in her poetry: she wants to be "coloured with the colour of dusk" (the symbolic colour of Krsna). Badshahi Angthhi, a Feluda story, is about a magnificent ring believed to have once belonged to emperor Aurangzeb. Could Rukmi, Mirabai and Aurangzeb have been the same jiva-atma (human soul or individual soul)?

There are a number of popular stories suggesting that Vikramaditya, who later became king of Chittor, after Bhojraj, tried to harm Mirabai. He is said to have pinned iron nails in Mira's bed, but by Krsna's grace they turned into rose petals when Mira reposed on it. He put a serpent in a flower basket and sent it to her - as a gift from him to her Krsna, but when Mira opened it she found a garland of flowers and a lovely idol of Krsna. This anecdote is referred to in her poems. So Krsna continued to keep an eye out for Mira? Apocryphal stories perhaps, but interesting nonetheless.

The Krsna-Rukmini story: Rukmini was to be married to (Krsna's cousin) Shishupala, who too was a vassal of Jarasandha. Rukmini sent word to Krsna to rescue her from such an unpleasant experience. The narrative talks about Krsna running away with Rukmini, and marrying her. There is mention of Balarama too. However, Krsna is a woman. Panchali. So, did Krsna run away with Rukmi, and they (quietly?) married? But due to unfavourable circumstances, etcetera etcetera Rukmi walked away? (Shishupala, Balarama and Satyabhama - are they different people?) ... Kunti and Krsna are one and the same. Kunti and Suryadeva's son (Karna – a child born through surrogacy?) was given up for adoption. Karna could be allegorical allusion. But who was Suryadeva? Could it be an allusion to Prince Rukmi?

'Ae ri main to prem diwani': link. (MiraBai - a man or a woman? A cross-dresser? Byron-esque? A pansy? Dandy-ish? Hamlet-esque? Given to dramatising unseemly grief and melancholy (unrequited love) rather than describing it? Depressive, vulnerable, vague and philosophical? Messed up, impulsive, irascible, self-absorbed, emotionally needy or a 'chipku' type [needing a lot of attention, affection, or emotional support], knotted up inside even punitive? Standoffish (sullenly aloof or withdrawn or haughty - as in silent resentment or protest)? Hamlet is about the difference between being and seeming. A 'chipku' type means, a very sticky type. Chipku is a colloquial word derived from "chipakna" which means, "to stick". In informal talking it is used for a person who always tries to accompany someone whether or not that person likes it. (Given Professor Shanku's characteristics, a 'chipku' type won't do. Even Jatayu and Feluda stay apart.)

Ramchandra's rejection of Sita is selfish and crude, and almost universally condemned. Rukmi walking away from Krsna, Ramchandra's abandonment of Sita (Sri Rama) – is there a parallel? (Both are instances of direct abandonment as well as emotional rejection.) Sita belonged to Lanka while Ramchandra belonged to Ayodhya – could that have been an issue? Ramchandra (after ascending the throne) attended a yagna with a golden statue of Sita. Mirabai went about singing bhajans dedicated to Krsna – is there a parallel? Did Sita leave Ramchandra after realising they were totally incompatible or that he was duplicitous (deliberately deceptive, untrustworthy? Janus-faced? Sort of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? Obsessive? Possessive, and excessively so? Did he commit infidelity?) Why is Ramchandra considered an honourable man, an ideal man and a model spouse? Is it due to a superficial understanding? Or is it the outcome of subjective aspects, medieval sensibilities and non-progressive points of view that came about due to multiple retelling? (The ancient stories and the epics are much more interesting than they have been made out to be. This is largely due to retrogressive sensibilities, inanities, superficial understanding, oversimplification, histrionic excesses, cursory reading and non-progressive aspects (possibly reflecting the prevalent social milieu). Also, the stories must be understood in totality. What we read is essentially for stage performances, folk theatre, etc. There are metaphors, imageries, allegorical connotations and allusions that need to be intellectually understood.)

'Gorosthaney Sabdhan', a Feluda story, is about the 'Perigal Repeater', antique watch, horologists, etc. Repeaters should not be confused with striking clocks or watches. They originated before widespread artificial illumination, to allow the time to be determined in the dark, and were also used by the visually impaired. (Visually impaired. Kanha? The Phantom, also known as the 21st Phantom and Ghost Who Walks, is depicted wearing a mask with no visible pupils.)

Perigal Repeater – is most interesting. The avatar of the future is the Kalkiḥ-avatar (the 10th Vishnu, the 10th Maha-Avatar [manifestation in human form] of the Dasavataar). Kalkiḥ and Krsna (the 8th Vishnu) are synonyms. (It is essentially the return of the Krsna-avatar, Keśava. The highest avatar, despite myriad honorifics, is one and the same. The others are partial avatars or directly or indirectly empowered entities [abilities, intellect, etc].) The avatar of the future is likely to be an all-encompassing manifestation. However, could it also imply that Krsna-leela will gain precedence? (Alongside the Krsna-avatar there is Radha, Rukmini (possibly Rukmi) and Satyabhama. Alongside the Kalkiḥ-avatar there is Rama, Padmavati and Shuka (parrot). Is it a triangle or a rectangle?) 

Ramaa is a reference to Sri Rama, Sita. (Therefore, Ramayana/Sitayana is likely to be part of the leela).

Padmavati is a reference to Manasa Devi, a form of Shakti. (Naga Panchami is observed on the fifth day of the bright lunar fortnight of the Shravana month. Manasa Devi is ceremonially worshipped on Naga Panchami. She is also known as Vishahara (the Neelkanth analogy: the dispeller of unpleasant aspects, mist-dispelling/dispelling the 'fog' of tamasic aspects?), Jagadgaurī, Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati. The five "Naga" (an honorific implying immense amount of kundalini-energy, brain-power) worshipped on Naga Panchami are Ananta, Vasuki, Takshak, Karkotaka and Pingala. (Jagadgauri: Gauri ('the radiant one' - possibly implying healthy, flawless skin, or 'one who glows with an inner radiance'; a radiant personality, perhaps to whom even age had given a glow) is a reference to Parvati/Durga. Devi Manasa is mentioned as the wife of the eccentric and easily displeased (fastidious, scornful, capricious) sage Jaratkaru, who appears as a subordinate character in the tales of Manasa. The union was unsuccessful, with hardly any emotional attachment between them. Their son is known as Astika. (Astika means, one who has faith or belief in something or someone. Could it be an allusion to Prahlada who had faith in Vishnu and thus remained steadfastly loyal to Vishnu, despite all efforts to the contrary by his father, Hiranyakashipu? (Prahlada refused to worship Hiranyakashipu = he refused to accept Hiranyakashipu as greater than Vishnu. All the efforts of Hiranyakashipu in changing the mind of Prahlada were in vain.) Is Astika = Prahlada = Kartik = Ayyappa?) Prahlada was a daitya (euphemism for the offspring of a Deva [a positive person – implying positive traits, attributes, characteristics, purpose, goals/objectives etc] and an Asura [a negative/unpleasant person, full of vice]). Hiranyakashipu means: one who is immensely fond of wealth and is libidinous. (Kashipu = soft cushion. Maganlal Meghraj lazily sits upon a soft cushion. Implying a couch potato, indolent person, habitually lazy?) Manasa Devi is also mentioned as sister of Vasuki, the king of Nagas. (However, this could be an allegorical allusion - possibly implying twin souls, since Mainak Parvat is the brother of Gauri/Parvati).

Hiranyakashipu is depicted with buffalo horns. Mahisasura? (There could be allegorical allusions: possibly implying buffalo-like characteristics.) Bhringi Rsi – the Rsi with three legs, was also known as Andhaka. Andhaka implies unenlightened or vacuous mind. Dhritarashtra and Pandu = Andhaka? The Andhaka probably were a clan/group with a bison (sometimes also referred to as buffalo) totem/insignia. Shesha represents all vices in humankind, as well as fixed mindset (inability or adamancy to learn, unlearn, adapt and evolve) and therefore, has a set way of thinking and behaviour. (Nandi, on the other hand, probably belonged to a clan/group with a zebu bull totem/insignia (the Vrishni). Krsna, a Shuracena Yadu, is also known as Varshneya, 'of the Vrishni'. (A zebu is the contemporary representation of Nandi. The bull is imagery for dharmic aspects. So there is a Krsna-Nandi equation.) VasukiNaga = Nandi = Ganapati = Veda Vyasa. Ganesha symbolises the best of traits, attributes etc of humankind. (Ganesha is an honorific for someone with a great amount of intellectual calibre/brain-power and wisdom, someone who can think big - is a visionary and a do-er, has an elephant's memory and good listening skills, someone who is always willing to learn, is focused (self-disciplined, diligent, has a quest for excellence), displays courage/spine during difficult situations (a zebu can withstand high temperatures), displays equanimity (in different circumstances: is not unduly elated by achievements, praise or encomiums, is not too affected by unpleasant circumstances, criticism etc), is articulate but not given to trumpeting his own accomplishments. Ganesha is someone who is not unreasonable, extravagant or profligate (has self-control, does not lack in moderation, balance, and restraint). Ganesha is someone who is an impediment to unpleasant aspects, and a facilitator/catalyst for positive things. Thus Ganesha is worshipped before the commencement of any auspicious event.) Ganapati is Vignesh – someone who can overcome or surmount the greatest obstacles. VasukiNaga represents Guru Ratna. Ganesha is not Parvati's son. Though Ganesha is much more devoted [dedicated, committed] to Parvati than Kartik, as can be understood from the circumambulation story. When asked to circumambulate the globe (to prove their respective intellectual prowess and devotion/dedication/commitment), Kartik went globetrotting, while Ganesha merely circumambulated Parvati/Shivani (the ArdhaNarishvara form). This essentially implies: his entire world consisted of Parvati. (Yashoda sees the entire world in Krsna's mouth. Gautama Rishi circumambulates Surabhi (Ahalya, essentially the Pancha Kanya) – these are self-explanatory.) 

Ahalya has something to do with plough. Unploughed? The plough is associated with Balarama, also known as Baladeva and Halayudha. (Even if a Krsna-Balarama marriage were to happen, it is unlikely to be unsuccessful; Krsna will be frigid to Balarama.) Satyabhama is considered as Krsna's consort. Is Satyabhama = Balarama? Was that 'marriage' a joke [fake]? (Ramchandra's vaanvaas was for fourteen years. It could mean he was away from his kingdom or that he wielded very little clout/influence. Lakshmana (considered as a manifestation of Shesha) accompanied him. Lakshmana was away from his wife, Urmila, for fourteen years. Urmila was Sita's sister. Lakshmana and Urmila had two sons: Angada and Chandraketu. So Ramchandra and Lakshmana were brothers-in-law or former brothers-in-law? Maharshi Valmiki welcomed Sita into his ashram (hermitage). Was she merely a guest? Lava and Kusha were twins? (Maharshi is honorific for a learned person.) | Gupi Gyne and Bagha Byne became the sons-in-law of the twin kings of Halla and Shundi. Does this imply Ayodhya was under the suzerainty of Lanka? Gupi, being the taller of the two, married princess Manimala, while Bagha was married to Muktamala. Gupi Gyne and Bagha Byne could [therefore] allude to Ramchandra and Lakshmana?)

Shuka (depicted as a parrot, and one half of the divine pair Shuka-Sari) could be a reference to Radha. 

Radha: Father: Vrishabhanu/Vrsabhanu. Mother: Kirtikumari or Kirtida. (It is believed that King Suchendra/Suchandra and Queen Kalavati were reborn [re-manifested] as Vrishbhanu and Kirtikumari.) Radha is also known as Krsna-Priya, and is almost always depicted alongside Krsna and features prominently in myriad iconography. Krsna without Radha is unthinkable. Radha can never forget Krsna. Thus, RadhaKrsna. (RadhaKrsna is a single word, like sun and sunshine.) There is no reference that Krsna married Radha, though the other consorts, Rukmini and Satyabhama, are mentioned. In the Vaishnava tradition, Radha is Krsna's advisor. Theirs is a mental connection, a meeting [confluence] of minds; they share thoughts even though physically apart. Radha is regarded as Krsna's heart and soul. Theirs is considered a spiritual vivaah (perhaps implying: two halves of the same consciousness). Radha's relationship with Krsna, or rather the Radha-Krsna relationship, is highly esoteric in nature; it is regarded as the most perfect... primarily because of its endless [eternal] and unconditional nature. It is beyond the mundane.

In the future, however, there is a possibility of a RadhaKrsna marriage. (1. 'Ebar Fuler Prafulla-roop Esho': link. (Krsnakali = an epoch or maha-yuga – of four phases. Sat/Satya Yug – the metaphoric 'Golden Age' is the best of all phases. Fuler Prafulla-roop = the best phase of the metaphoric flower/bloom (signifying an epoch/maha-yuga). The avatar appears at the cusp of two maha-yugas.) 2. 'Aami Bahu Basanaay': link. Coarse materialism or covetous attachment to material aspects is unlikely. (Ananta turns Vasuki away from such emotions/cravings. It accrues into the latter's good karma. Thus he continues to remain a positive person, an evolved and enlightened soul/jiva-atma. Rather he becomes better and better.) ... To do good things for the benefit of society requires material aspects (wealth etc). But that is not to be misconstrued for coarsely acquisitive instinct/mindset or covetous attachment. Textbook moralism is different from real-life struggle. 3. 'Padaprante Rakho Shhebake': link. They are likely to remain at a distance and so, the romance is likely to be imperceptible to others. 4. 'Aami Roope Tomaay': link. Vasuki’s feelings, emotions and passion are self-explanatory. 5. 'Gahana Kusumakunja-majhe': link. Unhiding the RadhaKrishna love. Probably the most famous love story of all (in history and literature). Some love stories are immortal. Humankind continues to remember such great love stories of some romantic historical couples with wonder and respect.)

Ravana is said to have usurped Lanka. The narrative says Ramchandra went in pursuit of the golden deer. (Rukmi walked away from Krsna.) In other words, he left - to pursue his personal goals/objectives/dreams. He went in pursuit of personal fame, glory and so on and yet continued to mope around for Sita/Sri Rama? Did he expect Sita to worship the ground he walked on? An exaggerated self-image? Obsessive? A chauvinist? Could Ravana be a reference to Lakshmana?

As the assistant of a deity, the vahaan serves the function of increasing the powers (efficiency, effect, etc). It helps to subdue negative/unpleasant forces (or aspects) over which the deity dominates. The vahaan is an accoutrement (that which accompanies, supports). Positive aspects of the vahaan are often emblematic of the deity (form, mode) it is associated with.

One wonders as to why there has been an insistence on hyphenating two individuals, one of whom walked away from the other? Why has there been an insistence to worship them together as an ideal couple when they were not together, when one party abandoned the other? The Rama-avatar, the seventh avatar of the Dasavataar, is Sri Rama (Sita), not Shri Ramchandra. The eighth avatar is the Krsna-avatar. Thus: Rama-Krsna. (It is a dvandva: a compound word or a dual compound, the meaning of which refers to all its constituent members. The Sanskrit dvandva compound, also known as a "coordinate compound", is a term that describes a word which is composed of two or more individual words, each of which is considered equally important, or of equal value, in terms of their respective (grammatical) role in the compound.) Ramachandra's salilasamadhi: salila = water, samadhi = grave. Salilasamadhi = watery grave. Did he (along with Lakshmana) drown in the Sarayu River or is there allegorical connotations? Ramchandra and Lakshmana (Ravana): were they in cahoots with each other? Lakshma chopped off Surpanakha's nose. What could this imply? Could there be allegorical connotations? (Surpanakha = sharp nails. She was Ravana's sister. Hiranyakashipu's sister is Holika. Holika = Surpanakha? Or does it allude to loss of face for someone else?). Who were Bharata and Shatrughna? Did Ramchandra invade Lanka? (Gupi Gyne was banished from his village astride a donkey. Incidentally, the donkey is the vahaan of Kaalratri, a form of Kalika (Kali, Mariamma). Hanuman-ji opening his chest to reveal an image of SiyaRama could be a reference to a tattoo or some sort of body art. Siyarama is a reference to Sri Rama (Sita, Sridevi/Bhudevi – personification of nature, deity of the earth. Sri is a respectful honorific for Sridevi, the deity of prosperity, good health and fortune). Hanuman-ji is also vAtAtmajam, Pavana-Putra and SrI rAmadUtam (representative of Sri Rama). As per the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Rama is the allegoric pavana (a breathe of fresh air, a gentle mist-dispelling zephyr) to dispel the allegoric 'fog' of tamasic aspects (ignorance, retrogressive aspects, selfish mindset, etc) - to bring about an intellectual re-energisation (an intellectual, scientific and artistic renaissance). Pavana-Putra or vAtAtmajam = the son of pavana (wind). So, why would Hanuman-ji set forth to bring Sanjeevni-booti to revive Lakshmana? Why would he attempt to destroy Lanka? (Sita was the princess of Lanka, after all. Maybe the canny Ravana craftily passed the buck of blame onto Hanuman-ji?). Maharshi Valmiki and Maharshi Vashistha could be one and the same. The latter was the preceptor of Raghukula (the lineage of Raghu, to which Sri Rama belonged. Raghu was an illustrious ancestor of the Rama-avatar.) ... Perhaps Maharshi Valmiki should be depicted prominently alongside Sri Rama (Sita) instead of Shri Ramchandra, just as Radha is depicted prominently alongside Krsna. (Perhaps the ancient texts need a fresh approach - to cleanse them of inane interpretations, contemporisation (to reflect the social milieu and medieval sensibilities), histrionic excesses suitable of folk theatre, subjective and non-progressive aspects et al that probably came about after the decline of the Gupta era.) Also, it is unlikely that the events associated with the epics etc happened in the realm now known as India. Yamuna could be a reference to ancient Persia and possibly ancient Syria, which is also known as Sham. (Krsna [Panchali] was royalty and a Suracena Yadu. The Saracen (e.g. Saladin or Salahuddin) possibly is the actual Suracena Yadu (Megasthenes' Souracenoi - who especially worshipped Herakles in their realm. Megasthenes' Herakles was not the classical Greek deity per se. He merely equated the deity with the classical Greek divinity - Herakles. This Herakles was very likely a reference to Hari-Krsna (Sri Hari Vishnu). Thus the Sarakenoi or Saraceni (Latin Saracēnus or Greek Sarakēnos) could actually be the Suracena Yadu. Megasthenes arrived as the ambassador of the Seleucids during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire/Dynasty. He also described a clan called Sourasenoi, who especially worshipped Herakles in their realm, and this realm had two cities/towns, Methora and Kleisobora/Carisobaras, and a navigable river, the Jobares. (There could be allegorical allusions.) Also, as was common in ancient times, the Greeks sometimes described foreign deities in terms of their own divinities, and there is little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Surasena or Surasena Yadu - a branch of the Yadu clan/kula. (Therefore, the Suracena Yadu can be identified with the ancient clan/lineage of Harikula or Harivansh. The Indian Yadavs, on the other hand, could be Golla or Gwala people who were involved in animal husbandry, and probably referred to themselves as Yadava – after the contemporisation of the epics. Therefore, it is of much recent vintage, perhaps in the previous two or three centuries.) Also, the places we tend to associate with the epics probably have come about due to the efforts of people like the Adi Sankaracharya, as well as due to contemporisation and localisation of the epics and other ancient stories. Perhaps the avatar appears in one specific place, which could be Kailasha, Lanka, Panchala, Mithila, Janakapura, Dvarka, Kasi, Kapilavastu, Magadha, Pataliputra (Palibothra to the Greeks), and so on - simultaneously. Where it is, that is the question. Perhaps it is revealed only when the divine power wants it to be revealed? Mahabharata is not a realm. It is events associated with the Bharata-s, euphemism for folk who inhabited a realm known for its knowledgeable and high-minded citizenry. In other words: the Arya people. 1. Ayodhyā 2. Mathurā 3. Gayā 4. Kaśī 5. Kañchi 6. Avantikā and 7 Dvārāvatī. The Sapta-Puri. The seven holiest realms. Where could they really be? Is Ayodhya (Ayudhya – the Invincible City or the Eternal City) the real Rome? Is Rome a variant of Rama (Sri Rama)? Was it a realm with a wolf insignia? What was the insignia of Lanka? A donkey? Is the realm now known as India the Kishkindha [Kiṣkindhā] of the epics? Was Riksharaj (King of the Rikshas) Jambavana or Jambavanta part of this realm? (Jamba or Jambul is a reference to Indian blackberry. Maybe there was an abundance of this tree.) Who were Sandrokottas, Sandrokyptos, Sasicottus and Xandramas – to the Greeks?) 

'Charana Dhoritey': link. (This could be about SheshaNaga. However, is it a reference to Ramchandra or Lakshmana? (SheshaNaga is depicted as five-headed or seven-headed. Implying a group?) Lakshmana/Balarama is considered as a manifestation of Shesha. The lyrics allude to someone who has (in a manner of speaking) sold his soul for petty/selfish/short-term gains? Someone totally lacking in scruples and completely self-centred? Duar-e = an allusion to Dvarka? Or a reference to alms seeking? Could it be a reference to Karna? Karna was given a proper/ceremonial funeral = Kunti accepted him as part of the Pandavas = he was acknowledged as a former spouse by Kunti/Panchali/the Krsna-avatar? (The five Pandavas = the Pancha Kanya, the five women who are one and the same. Pañcakanyā: Ahalya, Draupadi, Sita, Tara and Mandodari. Sometimes Sita is replaced with Kunti. However, Sita (Sri Rama) and Kunti (Panchali, Draupadi) are non-different. Refer Part-I.) Thus, some of Karna's ignominy was forgiven? He, therefore, received some sort of redemption in the eyes of the populace? In 'Joi Baba Felunath' ('The Elephant God'), a Feluda story, Satyajit Ray used a Mira bhajan ('Mohe laagi lagana guru-charanan ki': link) picturised on the self-proclaimed (fake) matsya-avatar who was in cahoots with the villainous Maganlal Meghraj (very likely modeled after Ravana/Mahisasura/Hiranyakashipu). Both (i.e. the fake matsya-avatar and Maganlal) indulged in negative activity in the garb of piety. Feluda confronts both and unmasks them; he also metes out the same treatment to the crafty Maganlal that he had meted out to Jatayu (Lalmohan Ganguly). The fourth-avatar of the Dasavataar is Arjuna/Ganesha – through whom Vishnu acts. (Thus Hiranyakashipu and his machinations come to an end.) Jatayu, the noble vulture = Rama-Krsna (the seventh and eighth-avatar of Vishnu). Giridhara = resurrection?) 

Utpal Dutt's performance as Maganlal Meghraj is understated, brilliant and unforgettable. (Refer Part-II). Jatayu is subjected to a grotesque ordeal, in front of Feluda (who could only watch helplessly and do nothing; one of Maganlal's henchmen held a gun to his and Topshe's head). Maganlal brought in a knife-thrower (who constantly coughed: allusion to Rukmi? tulsi leaf is used to cure cough and cold) and referred to him as Arjuna. It probably implied, the antithesis of Arjuna: Karna. (There is an image of Kalika on the knife-throwing board. Jatayu = Rama/Krsna/Parvati/Kalika/Sarasvati etc.) Maganlal and Karna (Lakshmana/Balarama/Ravana/Kumbhakarna/Hiranyakashipu/Shishupala/Santanu and Ramchandra/Rukmi respectively) were [therefore] aware of the Jatayu/Parvati/Ganga/Satyavati/Ahalya/Sita/Krsna and Ganesha/Nandi/Arjuna/Bheeshma/Valmiki/Gautama Rishi/Sampaati/Shakuni/Veda Vyasa etcetera etcetera equation? So they were aware of the Eklavya-Dronacharya equation? Were they also aware of Bheeshma's kathor vrata (bhishama pratigya: great vow/pledge of silence)? They were [therefore] aware that Ganesha was emotionally attached to Parvati? ... And yet, the Feluda stories are sometimes criticised for not having a romantic angle!!

Satyajit Ray was a rare genius. (We tend to imagine the events and characters from the epics and ancient stories as larger-than-life events and characters. However, such things cannot happen except in folk theatre-ish depictions or dramatisations. For instance, Ravana's ten heads is a metaphor. Refer Part-III. Nobody is born with buffalo horns. It is imagery to imply, a dark mind or a negative person. Bheeshma was born after the eighth attempt = Bheeshma-Satyavati's baby was born after the eighth attempt or eight months? Destiny (bhagya-vidhaata) chose Vyasa's DNA to rule Hastinapura is self-explanatory. It is a reference to Bheeshma-Satyavati's baby. On a side note, Hiranyakashipu was Kartik/Prahlada's biological father? (Bheeshma (Devavrata) and the story involving Amba, Ambika and Ambalika. Amba and Ambika is a reference to Parvati/Durga. Ambalika: there was a childhood connection between Devavrata and Parvati, they were [very likely] childhood sweethearts, but then lost touch - went their seperate ways, but thought of each other over the years? Bheeshma, Chitrangada and Vichitraveerya (Satyavati's supposed offsprings). Bheeshma and Chitrangada = the Arjuna-Chitrangada story. Chitrangada was kurupa, ugly-looking. Vichitraveerya = a different or alternative model of masculinity (not the mooch-twirling, boastful or macho kind - as can be understood from the iconographic depiction of Kartik). He is also known as Kumar, implying someone with princely qualities and boyish looks/charm. (Chocolate boy looks: a boyish charm, a winsome smile, gentlemanly manners, confident masculinity, well-groomed/cool, a sense of humour, soft eyes and pink lips are something that no amount of overt masculinity/machismo, stubble, hirsuteness or twirling of mustaches can equal.) Kartik/Prahlada was very likely Bheeshma/Ganesha and Satyavati/Parvati's son. Kartik's vahaan is a peacock (mayur), an imagery/analogy used for the Krsna-avatar. SarasvatI (Prajapati Brahma/Brahmani/Brahmi - the Creator and perennial knowledge stream, Feluda's Gyanpeeth) is also depicted with a peacock. In Shonar Kella ('The Golden Fortress') - a Feluda story, the main villainous character is scared of mayur.) 

Jatayu's comments are awesome, full of mirth but quite meaningful. In 'Joi Baba Felunath' there is a scene wherein upon entering their room at the guesthouse, Jatayu, Feluda and Topshe discover a fourth bed. Feluda looks at the body-builder's mirror. Jatayu puts forth his theory of the 'Shoukhhin lok', who shaves his chest ("buker chul-tul...", he trails off).

'Charana Dhoritey': link. "Chirapipashita bashona bedona bnachao taharey maria shesh joy-e jyano hoye shhe bijoyi tomaari kachhetey haariya." ... This is indicative of someone who is very very materialistic and never content (gluttonous attachment to materialistic aspects; Bakasura - the great devourer, implying insatiable acquisitive instinct/mindset?) Karna was subdued by the Krsna-avatar. Parvati/Durga is mahishAsura mardinI (The Annihilator of the [terrible/brutal] Buffalo Demon/Mahisasura) – who indulged in all sorts of negative activities, and took on several disguises (implying he wore a mask to present a different image, to befool the populace?). Mahisasura = somewhat of an unsophisticated Moriarty? Maganlal Meghraj aka Daku Gandaria (a thieving disposition/temperament and rhinoceros-like characteristics: emotionally hardened, immune to shame and guilt, great physical strength - like a bulldozer, etc)? The archenemy/antagonist and negative mastermind? (Durga Vandana: link.)

What is meant by Madhu-Kaitabha? The Krsna-avatar is Madhusudana, annihilator of the obnoxious Madhu. Does it imply someone who (in a manner of speaking) stung like a bee (barbs laced with pricks but dipped in honey), or was (metaphorically speaking) saccharine-laced? (Singular erotic tastes? A lip-biter? Lips stung by an actual bee? The oldest sting in the book - the honeytrap?) Could Madhu also imply a panderer? A person who provides or benefits from the weaknesses or vices (depraved appetite, vulgar/ignoble tastes) of others or exploit their weaknesses? Abha = shine (of glory?). Kaitabha could be a reference to what? (The story: Madhu and Kaitabha had stolen the Vedas (Books of Knowledge) from Brahma (Brahmi) and deposited them in Rasatala (possibly implying decadence, ignorant aspects gaining precedence). Vishnu, in the manifestation [avatar] as Hayagriva (the horse-headed Vishnu), retrieved the Vedas. Madhu and Kaitabha disintegrated into two times six — which is twelve pieces (two heads, two torsos, four arms and four legs). These are considered to represent the twelve seismic plates of the Earth. Could it [also] imply division of a realm?) What could have been implied by Sumbha-Nisumbha? (Sumbha was enamoured with the goddess (after hearing about her from Chanda and Mundo). He sent Sugriva to court the goddess, but she rejected his advances.) Sugriva = handsome? (Griva = jaw). Chanda-Mundo? Chanda: something to do with taxation? Mundo = head? Dhumralochana, a leader of the negative forces, is said to have had a retinue of sixty thousand asuras. Dhumralochana = smoky eyes? Sunda-Upasunda: two powerful asura (malevolent) princes who grew up to be very powerful and were always of one mind. Brahma granted that they would be completely invulnerable, except that they could be destroyed by each other. Drunk with power their activities became a matter of concern for the people, who prayed to Brahma for help. Brahma then created the beautiful apsara Tilottama who caused dissent between the two. Sunda-Upasunda fought over Tilottama and ended up destroying each other. (Danava = manava or humans with cannibalistic or depraved [paishasic] tendencies? Parvati/Durga is the dispeller of negativity and harbinger of positive aspects. Prashobini = perennial knowledge stream. Sanaatani = most ancient, eternal. The permanent authority of the universe, the motive power and guiding force behind the mathematically precise universe. This also implies that the fadeout of an epoch/maha-yuga (of four phases) and the commencement of another will happen on time.) ... Raktabija could imply what? Proliferation of negative mindsets? Akin to a leech? (Energy-sapping but usually unnoticed? A leech is one who benefits, usually deliberately, from others' effort but does not offer anything in return, or makes only token acknowledgement. Other terms for this type of behaviour: a moocher, sponge.) Could Raktabija also imply contaminated blood? Health and hygiene? Need for generating awareness? Preventive health services? Effective measures to improve public health? Seeding of ignorant or unpleasant aspects (moral corruption: regressive mindsets, chauvinistic attitude, prejudices and stereotypes, homophobic attitudes, misogynistic mindsets and social conditions, portraying women as the lesser gender or as lesser parent, attitudes and behaviour that strip women of their dignity (denigration of women, the Draupadi vastraharan analogy), environmental pollution in the garb of rituals and traditions, religious schisms and prejudices - despite praying to the same divinity, and so on)? Need for adult education and access to and effectiveness of contraceptive methods?

Asura Tamra was one of Mahishasura's favourite generals. Tamra = copper, a ductile, malleable metal of a brownish-red colour. What could it imply? Easily led or influenced? Spineless? Elastic morals? Mixed parentage? Asiloma, Utharaka, Bidala, Bashkala, Trinetra, Kalabandhaka, Durmukha were some of the great generals of Mahisha. Durmukha = foul-mouthed? Kalabandhaka = something to do with the performing arts, culture etc? Cufflinks? Bracelet? Wrist bands? Bound wrists? (Kinky stuff? Singular erotic tastes? Sadomasochism?) Trinetra = three-eyed? (A stealthy meddlesome snoop?) Bashkala = cultural aspects or hard of hearing? Or one who listens attentively? Asiloma: something to do with asi (horsewhip or chabuk) and body hair (or lack of it)? What could Utharaka and Bidala imply?

Vṛtra or Vritrasura (one who covers everything): the personification of drought (he is believed to have kept the waters captive) and adversary of Indra (king or leader of the deva, enlightened or positive persons). Vritra was also known as Ahi ("serpent" – possibly implying a malevolent mind, not enlightened mind, Naga). He is said to have obstructed the course of the rivers, but was annihilated by Indra (who thereafter released the captive rivers). Vṛtra or Vritrasura is said to have practiced penance for sixty thousand years and [thus] acquired immense power. Vritra is portrayed as a bhakta of Vishnu, but was annihilated due to his inability to adhere to sattvic or dharmic values and without aggression. He was also antagonistic towards knowledgeable persons. 

The Krsna-Putana story: Kansa instructed Putana (a female negative person) to kill all the small children in Gokula. Maybe it alludes to toxic substances in their milk? The souring of milk or the putrefaction of milk? Or [probably] through arsenic poisoning? Water pollution? Of nourishment that kills? (Kansa: Bronze. There are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is copper and tin. The addition of other metals (usually tin, sometimes arsenic) produces an alloy much harder than plain copper. (Unlike arsenic, tin is not toxic.) The word bronze probably originates from "bell metal, brass". (Who will bell the cat? Wedding bells? Someone given to marrying several times?) What could Kansa mean? A toxic mind? A mean person?) ... Putana can also mean, "devoid of virtue" (Sanskrit: Pūtanā, lit. "putrefaction"). Putana as "stinky" can be a metaphor for pustulant sores, the eruption of which is a symptom of chicken pox. A carbuncle? Syphilis? Allegory for darkness and chaos? Could it also imply lack of personal hygiene? Indigestion? Body odour? (Krsna's actions were therefore cathartic?) Putana is also called pootani, the "killer of infants". Putana symbolises the lack of illumination of knowledge, an unenlightened mind. An unstable mind, deluded: a schizophrenic mind, someone who is trapped in an emotional cobweb, of which he/she cannot let go? The previous birth of Putana as Ratnamala, the daughter of demon [asura] king Bali could imply Putana = King Mahabali? Putana is also described as a Vaki, a female crane, thus a symbol of crookedness and hypocrisy. (Bnaka = crooked. Bakadharmic = insincere, pretense, willfully false or habitually deceptive. Adept at throwing dust/sand into people's eyes?) The Bakasura analogy? Manthara analogy - symbolising crookedness of heart? (Deviation from moral rectitude; perverseness? Deviousness? Conniving trickery? Bamboozling? Deceitful and underhanded?) Putana nursing a baby Krsna is similar to the Yashoda imagery: that of (in a manner of speaking) a foster-mother to Krsna: someone who cared for and looked after the Krsna-avatar, fulfilling her every need. However, Putana is the antithesis of Yashoda. Putana could [therefore] imply someone with chest fat. Sheba, the lord of asuras (negative persons). Sheba = someone rendering seva? Kansa = Putana = Mahabali = Sheba = Balarama = Hiranyakashipu = Ravana = Lakshmana?

Mahabali became arrogant and disrespectful of others including Lord Vishnu. So much so that he asked arrogantly who was this Vishnu that stood in his way. He also attempted to conquer [wrest] heaven (possibly implying some realm known for its scenic beauty) from the Devas (honorific for enlightened beings) and Patala (Pataliputra?) from Indra... and was subdued by the Vamana-avatar - the fifth avatar of the Dasavataar. (Pale-red = paTalaH in Sanskrit. Did paTalaH-putra become Pataliputra? Putra could be a term implying citizenry. Can Patala be a reference to the famed city of Pataliputra? The pale-red lotus is the Highest Lotus or Supreme Lotus; this lotus is highly revered and signifies the highest deity.) The Vamana(diminutive)-avatar of Vishnu taught King Mahabali that arrogance and false pride should be abandoned - to become a better person, and that excessive pride in one's wealth is counterproductive. Vamana = dimunitive (probably implying someone who is neither tall nor short.) Bali's patala pravesha = his downfall (metaphoric eclipse? swansong or something more?) However, the Lord allowed him to visit his people once a year. (Onam celebrates Mahabali's annual visit.) Vishnu as Trivikrama subdued Mahabali. (Vikrama means: one who is wise, diligent, brave and strong as well as victorious. The Sanskrit word -kram is a root word meaning 'step or stride', so Vikram can be understood to mean Vishnu's stride in itself, or that which reflects the qualities of Vishnu's stride. Vishnuh: Long-striding (as with vigour, a confident walk). In Vedic scripture, Vishnu's stride is said to be over the earth, the sky, and the all-pervading omnipresent essence of the Universe. Hence Vishnu is also known as Trivikrama.)

Krsna destroyed Trinavarta (whirlwind demon), probably implying the demon of false pride. This is understandable. Thus it is advisable to remain modest/humble. It is also advisable to curb one's overweening ambition and other unpleasant instincts. Vatsasura, the demon calf: offspring of Balarama (Lakshmana/Ravana/Hiranyakashipu)? Similar characteristics/attributes/qualities/instincts/behaviour and innate traits/biological capabilities? (Genetics is as important as education, environment [for acquired attributes], and values/upbringing. Characteristic temperament, psychology or intellectual abilities, to some extent, is influenced by genetics? Upbringing or effort might enhance or tone down a trait, but one cannot change genetics? In one's psyche one will still be the same? Environment can only enhance or reduce what has been given genetically? Environment shapes genetics, but, does not remove/instill traits that are inherent in the genes passed on by parents, etc?) Vatsasura assumed the shape of a calf to be able to mingle with the other calves (implying: with Krsna's offspring, or with others' also)? Another asura (negative person), in the shape of a big duck, was also destroyed. What could this imply? Quackery? A good-for-nothing? Characteristics of a duck?

Ikshvaku (Sanskrit: ikṣvāku (from the Sanskrit word ikṣu which means 'sugar cane'); Pali: Okkāka). It is a reference to the dynasty or lineage of Rama (Ramchandra?). King Iksvaku probably being the progenitor of the lineage.

Pataliputra: putra could be a term implying citizenry. Pāţali gur or "khejur gur" is sugar extracted from the sap of date palm trees. It's darker in colour and richer in texture and flavour. It is also known as "Nolen Gur" or "Notun Gur" - one thing that connects winter and Bengal. (Khejur Gur, liquid date palm jaggery - made from boiling the sap from date palms, is very popular during the winter months. The sap of the date palms is best during the winter months and that could be the reason this gur or jaggery is made around this time.) Patali is very delicious. It has much more flavour and tastes way better than cane jaggery (akhher gur). The sweet smell of khejur gur is pure bliss, not enough words to describe it. The date palm sap is made into three types of gur: liquid, grainy and solid chunks of patali. The most notable application for its use is in paayesh or paramanna, in place of sugar. (Paayesh can also be made with sugar but khejur gur-er paayesh is just heavenly. This payesh tastes best when served cold. Paayesh is traditional kheer (rice pudding) made with patali gur. The gur imparts a caramel-ly, smoky flavour to the kheer/paayesh, thus making it intensely rich, incredibly delicious, and definitely memorable. Pāţali gur is a winter specialty, and Pāţali gur-er payesh is savoured during Makara Sankranti and Sarasvati Puja.) 

Shubha Sarasvati Puja, everyone! (Sarasvati Shloka: link.)

Brahmarshi is honorific for the highest Rishi, exceptionally learned/knowledgeable and wise personages. They possessed extraordinary intellectual abilities, brainpower. They had also received the highest gyana, Brahma-gyana, knowledge of the divine. (Could it imply thought waves? Brain-to-brain communication?) Brahmarshi Vashistha was the preceptor (guru) of Raghukula (lineage of Raghu, to which Sri Rama belonged). Therefore, Vashistha = Devaguru Brihaspati = Guru Ratna? Were Vashistha and Valmiki one and the same? Brihaspati = someone with a big smile? (To put a big smile on someone's face? Someone who has a very big smile? A positive or inspiring persona? A highly positive person: an upbeat, happy and optimistic person? Pati = spouse, beau or spousal equivalent. Note: A very big smile may not be the same as grinning from ear to ear like a Cheshire cat. Such a person lacks gravitas. The colloquial saying 'daant kyelaney banchharam' implies a grinning fool, a dullard. It can also allude to unctuous behaviour or sycophancy, an absolutely servile mindset, overtly or totally obsequious.) Byangoma-Byongomi is part of "Thakumar Jhuli" (Grandmother's Tales) - a collection of folk tales and fairy tales. Could Byangoma-Byangomi be another version of Shuka-Sari - a pair of parrots (love birds) symbolising the eternal Divine couple RadhaKrsna? Byangoma-Byangomi is legendary birds, which can talk like a human; they appear most notably in the fairytales of Thakumar Jhuli (Grandmother's Tales), where they are portrayed as a pair of wise birds that help the deserving. (Satyavati is Pitamahi. Bheeshma is Pitamaha. Ancestors or forebearers. Incidentally, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore wrote the introduction to the compilation.)

Vashistha (implying a calm, tranquil person, a well-mannered and cultured person with a quiet demeanour and a graceful way of speaking) had in his possession Kamadhenu and Nandini. (Kamadhenu and Nandini are non-different. Nandini and Surabhi are synonyms of Kamadhenu - symbolising prosperity, plenty, good luck, sustenance, etc. It is essentially a metaphor for Sridevi and Bhudevi – the deity of fortune and the personification of earth/nature. Sridevi and Bhudevi are one and the same.) Kamadhenu is regarded as a form [manifestation, personification] of dharitri/Bhudevi. Since cows are a metaphor for rivers, Surabhi can also imply SarasvatI (also associated with a forgotten river as well as a perennial knowledge stream and a repository of timeless knowledge, wisdom, inspiration and consciousness. Feluda's Gyanpeeth.) Kamadhenu is sometimes described as a Matrika (divine "mother", a respectful honorific). Iconography of Kamadhenu shows her with the body of a white Zebu cow, crowned woman's head, colourful eagle wings and a peacock's tail. BG 10.28: || dhenunam asmi kamadhuk || ~ "among cows I am the Surabhi." ... Surabhi or Kamadhenu is the source of all prosperity and a symbol of good luck, plenty, non-selfishness, sustenance, etc. All the divinities are depicted in the body of Kamadhenu. This probably indicates that the Avatars [manifestations of the divine in human form] are one and the same, merely various aspects/forms of SarasvatI. (And so, the physical appearance of the highest Avatar is unlikely to change, despite myriad honorifics.)

Vashistha is also associated with Mitra-Varuna. He is one of nine Prajapatis. (Prajapati could be an honorific for an influential person, or someone in a leadership role. It could also be indicative of the Navaratna (Sanskrit nava-ratna or "nine gems") - a term applied to a group of nine extraordinary people. Vashistha is also regarded as a manasputra of Lord Brahma (Brahmani/Brahmi). Does it imply a meeting [confluence, yoga] of minds, or immense knowledge and wisdom? Brain-to-brain communication? Mann ki lagan? Vashistha = VasukiNaga. Is Maharshi Valmiki of the Ramayana the same as the prodigiously knowledgeable Maharshi Veda Vyasa (Krsna Dvaipāyana Vyasa) of the Mahabharata? (On a side note, is Krsna Dvaipāyana Vyasa a reference to the prodigious Veda Vyasa or to the Krsna-avatar?)

BG 10.37: || vṛṣṇīnāḿ vāsudevo 'smi pāṇḍavānāḿ dhanañjayaḥ munīnām apy ahaḿ vyāsaḥ kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ || "Among the Vrishni I am Vasudeva (Lord of Mathura, Dvarka and Vrindavaan), Arjuna among the Pandavas, Vyasah among the sages (enlightened minds), and Ushanaa among the great poets." (Vasudeva = the deity [personification] of prakriti/dharitri. The Vrishni were [very likely] a clan/group with a zebu bull insignia. The robust Zebu bull or Brahma bull (also known as Brahmana, implying immensely knowledgeable, enlightened mind) is the contemporary representation of Nandi. Krsna, a Suracena Yadu, is also known as Varshneya, 'of the Vrishni'. This is significant.)

kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ, Ushanaa among the great poets: this could imply Brihaspati. Usha = dawn. Uśanā could therefore imply dawn-like. (A Renaissance man, Yug Purush, Man of destiny. Destiny = Bhagya-Vidhaata or Lord of destiny: the arbitrator of destiny, the dispenser of destiny – based on efforts, endeavours, values, etc. Uśanā = an exceptionally enlightened mind, immense intellectual prowess, sagacious, the ability to think big, to think differently (fresh approach, original thinking) = Ganesha-ji/Ganapati = Acharya Chanakya = Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara Padmapani. (The light of wisdom = Surya-Kotti Samaprabha, as radiant as a million Suns = Ganesha-ji. Padmapani: Padma is Sanskrit for the pale-red lotus. The pale-red lotus is the Highest Lotus or Supreme Lotus; this lotus is highly revered and signifies the highest deity. Pani is a term that alludes to wedding, as in to ask for someone's hand in marriage. Pani can also imply nectar. This is self-explanatory. Parvati and Ganesha were not mother and son. Siddhartha Gautama ('one who is self-content', also, the dispeller of darkness; Siddhartha implies bhagya-vidhaata) was married to Yasodharā; their son was born when the latter was twenty-nine. (It is unlikely that the Buddha was married at sixteen. It probably implies a childhood connection.) Yashodhara = bearer of glory: an accomplished person, a well-respected person, of good reputation and well-liked by everyone. The story about Siddhartha Gautama deserting (her) two-year-old son and Yashodhara in the service of a greater cause – probably has come about later? The story is somewhat reminiscent of the Kunti-Suryadeva story, wherein foster parents brought up their son (Karna). Is Suryadeva an allegory for Ganesha? Is Karna an allegory for large (elephant) ears implying good listening skills? What might have been the reason, since Gandharva-Vivaah too was accepted? Was the child born through surrogacy, and Ganesha was the sperm donor? 'Aamar Mon Maane Na': link.) ... Chanakya is thought to have been a skinny person. Maybe he was a trim healthy man, physically fit and strong, energetic and in the best of health. (Feluda wakes up before sunrise and starts his day with yogasana. Despite being sturdy/physically strong and robust, he relies mostly upon his intellectual prowess and observation skill (euphemistically referred to as the Magajastra or brainpower/intellectual brilliance, allusion to Sudarshana Chakra?) instead of using physical strength. Gaja is a Sanskrit word for elephant. This perhaps explains Gaja Mani (elephant gem) or gajamukta, the elephant pearl, supposedly found within the head of elephants. It has great aura of influence, power, strength and stability like the sun, apart from mental peace and tranquility. One should have enough greatness of heart to have it. (Vasuki has a magnificent gem (Nagamani, the rare Naga Maanikya), on his head. Possibly implying intellectual aspects: vast knowledge, wisdom and rare intellect. Or does it imply intellectual intimacy, a meeting [confluence, yoga] of minds? Like-minded? Gaja Mani or gajamukta = Nagamani, the rare Naga Maanikya.)

Mitra-Varuna: Mitra = the patron divinity of camaraderie (mayitree), agreements/contracts and meetings, and a figure of the Rig Veda, closely associated with Varuna (chief of the twelve Adityas). BG 10.21: || adityanam aham visnur || ~ "Of the 12 Adityas I am Visnu". (Of the 12 Adityas, Vishnu is the principal.)

Vyasa (also referred to as Veda Vyāsa and Vyasadeva) composed the Mahabharata, initially titled 'Jaya' - meaning victory, with Ganesha-ji's help. (Ganesha-ji wrote while Vyasa spoke.) Could it imply that Vyasa and Ganesha-ji (Ganapati) are one and the same? (The idiom: 'wise as an owl'. What could the Barn Owl, vahaan of Sridevi, signify? Owl-like characteristics? Someone exceptionally learned, wise and sagacious, not conventionally good-looking, but possesses an appealing personality (charisma/charm, attitude, intent, earnestness, depth and sincerity, wit and humour, effort, purpose), style, or talent... and therefore exudes plenty of mojo? ... Stoic (a straight face, an impassive facial expression, used to prevent giving away one's purpose, feelings, or situation). Of somber disposition, character, or manner, having a sober/sedate demeanour (not frivolous, insincere or capricious/impulsive, considers (a matter) carefully and often slowly, as by weighing alternatives). The no-nonsense type: stern, staid, firmly determined (resolute, resolved: purposeful, firm in purpose or intent), genuine, measured, careful in thought (unhurried, cautious, to think over/cerebrate/reflect, prudent), full of concern, or restrained and dignified in manner. Cogitative or contemplative: to think about or discuss something very carefully so as to make a decision (in a process of reaching a decision) or to make a choice (thus a choice or decision is made with full consciousness of the nature and effects). Thoughtful and quiet, the intellectual type: deep, cultured, intellectual, literary, sophisticated, scholarly, distinguished by sincerity and intensity of purpose. (Barn Owl = VasukiNaga). The Barn Owl, lokkhi pyancha, is considered very auspicious.)

In traditional Indian astronomy, pair of Alcor and Mizar in constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear) is known as Vashistha and Arundhati. (Ursa Major is known as Saptarshi, each of the stars representing one of the Saptarshi or Seven Sages.) Arundhati (or Arundhuti), accorded much respect and described as possessing a character that is inspiring and worthy of emulation, is identified with the morning star and also with the star Alcor which forms a double star with Mizar (identified as Vashistha Maharshi) in Ursa Major. (The constellation could be a symbol of marital bliss [togetherness, support, etc] implying an ideal couple... welded together by affection rather than duty or material gain: domestic happiness instead of marital claustrophobia. Is Arundhati a reference to Nandini/Surabhi/Kamadhenu?)

The five Pandavas = five aspects of Panchali (the Pancha-kanya). The five Pandavas could also be a metaphor: helping hands, a group of enthusiasts who worked towards a common cause or purpose. Yudhisthira is [very likely] a reference to Panchali. (The honorific Dharmaraja (Lord of destiny, Lord of Dharma or personification of dharmic aspects) is used for Yudhisthira. Yudhiṣṭhira meaning "steady in war", from yudh meaning war (dharma-yuddha, "battle" or efforts for a progressive, healthy and vibrant society to emerge) and sthira meaning steady (possibly implying: of steady mind, unwavering, steadfast, resolute or firmly determined.) Two other honorifics for Yudhisthira are Bharata (one who is always willing to learn, is ever-curious; Brahmacharini: treading the path of knowledge eternally; is the Dushyant-Shakuntala story applicable?) and Ajatashatru (one without enemies). (Yudhishthira and Duryodhana, in the Mahabharata, played a version of chaturanga using a dice. Karna became the ruler of Anga, courtesy of Duryodhana. Yudhishthira pledging Panchali in the game of dice is self-explanatory.) The mighty Bhima: physically very strong, a gourmet – reveling in the joy of an honest appetite. Bhima's proficiency in wrestling though may have allegorical connotations. (Bhima and Hanuman-ji: both Pavana-Putra. Hanuman-ji is considered as the elder brother of Bhima. Bhima is also known as Vṛkōdara (lit. 'one with a wolf's belly', perhaps an allusion to his voracious appetite). Arjuna = Ganesha-ji. Nakula perhaps implies: of humble parentage, not belonging to a prominent lineage or clan (kula). Sahadeva: an associate and a deva (a positive mind). Nakula and Sahadeva were twins. (This could also imply camaraderie. They could not have been Pandu's sons since Pandu (implying pusillanimous) was unable to father children.)

The Ancient game of Pachisi: From Hindi pachisi, from pachhis "twenty-five" (highest throw of the dice), from Sanskrit panca "five" + vinsati-s "twenty." Moves are determined by throws of cowrie shells or dice. 'Betal Panchabinshati'/'Betal Pachchisi' (a famous set of Sanskrit Tales). Chaturanga is an ancient strategy game. The Sanskrit name Chaturanga (Sanskrit: caturaṅga) means 'quadripartite' - the four angas (divided into four parts). Played on an authentic cloth game surface by 2, 3 or 4 players, Chaturanga combines the basic strategy of chess with the dynamic challenge of chance as the random roll of wooden dice determines each move. Unlike modern chess, chaturanga (recognised as the earliest form of chess, or a probable ancestor of the game of chess) was mainly a game of chance; results depended on how well one rolled the dice. In the game of dice (Sanskrit: aSTApada, pAsa, pA.nsA, bindutantra, prAsaka) Shakuni (also known as Saubala, 'one who is equivalent to a hundred') played with a loaded dice (courtesy of a lizard nestling inside his dice). Shakuni (exceptionally brilliant, the prince of Gandhara kingdom) was Duryodhana's principal advisor. He also brought to an end the lineage of Kuru (the Kauravas). Is Shakuni a villainous character? (Dice in general in Sanskrit are known as aksa; the oblong dice are distinguished as pasa, pasaka, parsa – all being variants of one another and connected with the Hindi pasa and the Punjabi phansa. (Could it imply entrapment?) The oblong or cubical dice (akṣa) is the precursor of the more primitive vibhīṣaka - small, hard nuts drawn randomly to obtain factors of a certain integer. Ravana, Vibhisana and Kumbhakarna (implying a couch potato: an idler or slacker, a feckless or indolent person, someone who is habitually lazy and extravagant) - could be three different aspects of the same individual. Is the sobriquet 'Vibhisana' derived from vibhīṣaka? Does Vibhisana imply excessive attachment to dice, a habitual gambler? Someone with a taste for gambling (whimsical decision-making) with a minimal sense of responsibility and disregard of outcome or significance? Excessively self-centred? Too clever by half?)

Draupadi vastraharan has been dramatised. Dushasana dragged Panchali by the hair into the gambling hall and publicly disrobed her on Duryodhana's orders: this essentially implies heaping of indignities, depriving a person of his/her dignity. Dushasana, though brother-in-law (and cousin), had treated Panchali in a crude, uncivilised manner. However, could it also imply voyeuristic behaviour? Dushasana = Pandu = Santanu = Balarama = Hiranyakashipu = Mahisasura = Satyabhama = Angulimala (of low moral values, the robber and murderer) = Putana = Shishupala = Lakshmana = Kumbhakarna = Vibhisana = Ravana? (Vibhisana/Lakshmana was a treacherous person. He crossed over to Ramchandra's side; he was [thus] in cahoots with Ramchandra. An incorrigible opportunist, he was clear about which side his bread was buttered on. The colloquial saying 'Ghar-er Shatru Vibhisana' implies a snake in the grass, aastin ka snaap, it is a metaphor for treachery, it implies a sneaky, untrustworthy person.) Vibhisana and Dushasana implies: an uncivilised human being, a rude, loutish or boorish person, a brutal, vicious, ruthless/cruel or remorseless person, someone innately inhumane, lacking pity/empathy or compassion: crude, uncultivated or unsophisticated, intemperate or undisciplined. Dushasana can also imply: a selfish or pathetic ruler. (Duryodhana is a Sanskrit word, which means: one who fights by using wrong/unethical means or immoral/underhanded ways/methods. (A totally unscrupulous person. Therefore, difficult to get the better of.) Duryodhana can also mean, the one with bad thoughts, implying a negative mind, voyeuristic thoughts/behaviour, a licentious person indulging in debauchery or vicious practices? Duryodhana's attitude and behaviour (including gesticulations, the act of gesticulating, or making gestures to aid expression of thoughts) towards Panchali was most shameful. Duryodhana = Dushasana = SheshaNaga?)

Lakshmana is considered as a manifestation of SheshaNaga (whose iconographic depiction is that of a five-headed or seven-headed serpent). Could it imply that SheshaNaga has five or seven manifestations (negative or unenlightened minds, emotionally hardened, with paishasic (inhumane or depraved) tendencies - each of whom probably having more than one identity), and that they together make up the entity known as SheshaNaga? Lakshmana was married to Sita's sister Urmila. They had two sons: Angada and Chandraketu. Angada could imply thickset or heavyset. What could Chandraketu signify? Also, if Lakshmana = Pandu (who was unable to father children), how did Angada and Chandraketu come about? Daitya is a term used for the offspring of a deva and an asura. Is Prahlada called daitya since he was the offspring of a deva (a positive person, enlightened mind) and an asura (a negative person, unenlightened/vacous mind)? Or is he called daitya since he - though the offspring of deva-s (Satyavati and Bheeshma/Parvati and Ganesha) was brought up by an asura (Santanu/Hiranyakashipu/Mahisasura/Satyabhama)? Bheeshma's selflessness as a man is indeed remarkable. 

Character cannot be acquired. A change of circumstances will not repair character flaws (weaknesses, deficiencies). The intrinsic (innate) personality traits of an individual are merely the reflection of the personality of the soul. This may help explain genius, innate ability, talents etc, i.e. being born with certain biological capability. (Acquired knowledge or characteristics/attributes, including social conditioning, can be changed through continuous effort.) SheshNaga represents fixed mindset, an inability or refusal to change for the better: to learn, unlearn, adapt and evolve, to become a better human being. Instead, he has a set way of thinking and behaviour. He is resolutely intransigent/obdurate, unreasonably obstinate/stubborn. He is resistant to change (resistant to organic or progressive transformation.) It is an innate quality. Therefore his intrinsic (innate) personality traits are unlikely to change.

A great white serpent that left the mouth of Balarama: this is considered as a reference to his identity as Ananta-Sesha. What could the Loch Ness Monster signify? (Sheshanaga (Śeṣanāga) is one of the primal beings of creation, and is sometimes referred to as Ananta Shesha.) In iconography, Balarama ('Strong Rama', implying great physical strength and/or behaviour akin to a bulldozer) is always depicted next to or around Krsna. A 'chipku' type? (A 'chipku' type means, a very sticky type. Chipku is a colloquial word derived from "chipakna" which means, "to stick". In informal talking it is used for a person who always tries to accompany someone whether or not that person likes it.) But why would Balarama have wanted to "stick" to Krsna? Infatuated? Obsessed and a habitual stalker? Keeping his ears peeled? To benefit by association (avaricious)? To be able to usurp Lanka? (Before Jatayu is put through the grotesque ordeal, on Maganlal's orders, the latter refers to Jatayu as "uncle". (Maganlal gleefully pronounces it as: aankael. He relishes saying it.) Kansa = Ravana = Maganlal Meghraj? Feluda (Ganesha-ji/Sabyasachi - ambidextrous, the indefatigable one) was [thus] effectively sidelined? The people were used to associating the [ignoble, negative-minded, good-for-nothing] brother-in-law/cousin Balarama/Santanu/Karna (Satyabhama)/Putana/Hiranyakashipu/Mahisasura/Lakshmana (and not the deserving Bheeshma) with Krsna/Satyavati/Sita/Parvati? ... There is a raksha-bandhan story involving Sridevi and Mahabali. And yet, this is what he did?! Perhaps it shows that a stoutly intransigent mind (that is stubbornly resistant to change) will not change for the better no matter what. And so, intrinsic traits cannot be overcome. The Buddha had often cautioned/advised not to judge people from appearances and their overt behaviour. Perhaps the Krsna-avatar believed in: keep your well-wishers close and your enemies closer.

Krsna, a warrior par excellence, did not wield weaponry. Ravana (who is also Balarama, Hiranyakashipu, Santanu, Vibhisana, Kumbhakarna, Dushasana, Mahisasura, Putana, Lakshmana, etc) usurped Lanka. However, what was Pradyumna's reaction to it? (Pradyumna, Krsna's son, is also Prahlada, Kartik, Aiyappa and one of Lava and Kusha.) Did he not object? What about Kunti and Suryadeva's son (referred to as Karna) who was brought up by foster parents? What happened to this Karna? When did Bheeshma/Ganesha-ji set the record straight? What does Banasura, Kichaka, Kirmira (sibling of Bakasura), Hidimbi and Ghatotkacha imply? Kirmira: the gnashing of teeth, to express a strong emotion or petulance? What could Brihannala imply? 

'Aamare Karo Tomaar Beena': link. (He articulates. The poet also implies that SarasvatI [AnantaNaga] means everything to him. This is reminiscent of Yashoda, Ganesha-ji and Gautama Rishi.)

'Aamar Suurey Laage Tomaar Hansi': link.

(Note: Who was Alexander? What made him come to the Indus region? Why did the all-conquering Yavana suddenly turn altruistic? Who was Puru (Paurava or Parvateshvar)? (Yavana is a term implying, non-Arya. ... Feluda wrote his notes (his observations, etc) in English but used the Greek alphabet. The entries he made into his personal notebook were in Greek. Could the knife-throwing scene in 'Joi Baba Felunath' have been Ray's hat-tip to Shakespeare's Julius Caesar?) The seventh avatar of the Dasavataar is [very likely] Sri Rama (Sita, Sridevi/Bhudevi – personification of prakriti/dharitri). How and when did Shri Ramchandra supplant her? Was it due to the efforts of the medieval poets, scholars, dramatists et al... who for some reason glorified Ramchandra while turning Sita into a groveling shriveling weakling? In the process two people have been hyphenated and depicted as an ideal couple (with Shri Ramchandra as the ideal spouse) when one of them abandoned the other. The 'rejection' of the Buddha-avatar while Balarama (a manifestation of SheshaNaga) is glorified. Was Ramesses II, the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, a manifestation of Shri Ramchandra? What about Shah Jahan? (Ramesses II is also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses; also known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses' throne honorific. Refer Part-IV.)

If Kristu/Khristhha (Krsna) is Maria/Christ, Yasodhara/Yesu/Jishu (Bheeshma/Sabyasachi/Jishnu) is Jesus, then who is Joseph? Balarama? (Crucifixion (Refer Part-II) = Krusbiddha Jishu = Jesus affixed to a cross = Bheeshma's kathor vrata (great vow or solemn pledge - of silence) and/or self-blame or voluntary self-punishment so as to atone for some [real or imagined] wrongdoing? A Chanakya-esque solemn pledge to set the record straight? Or his vow of eternal bachelorhood and celibacy? ... Austerities? Self-denial or self-abnegation (altruistic abstinance, to forgo personal pleasures)? Voluntary asceticism? Denying himself the joys of togetherness? But why? Heartbreak (overwhelming or devastating grief, anguish, or distress)? A broken man (weakened, demoralised, browbeaten, subdued totally)? Could it be that Bheeshma blamed himself for Krsna's discarding of the physical form... though Jara (the hunter, Banasura?) was the one who caused it?)  


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