Sunday, June 1, 2014

Notes on 'Gahana Kusumakunja Maajhe'

'Gahana Kusumakunja Maajhe':

Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhanusingho ("Sun Lion")... and the next sixty-four years were marked by a torrential flow of creativity in manifold forms. He was the first Nobel laureate from outside Europe, representing India and thus the first Nobel Prize of the Far East. [The first non-European to win a Nobel. | 'Gahana Kusumakunja Maajhe' is part of his first substantial poems written under the pseudonym Bhanusingho.]

Gahana Kusumakunja ~ is this a reference to Nandan-kanan? The fabled Garden of Eden?

BG 10.35: || māsānāḿ mārga-śīrṣo 'ham ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "Of months I am Mārgaśīrṣa [November-December], and of seasons I am spring."

BG 10.35: || ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "and of seasons I am spring." [Here, "spring" can also indicate sarasa - Manas Sarovara (Kundalini, Agni Teerth) - Feluda's Gyanpeeth or SarasvatI, and/or Makara Sankranti.] 

~ O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? asked Shelley. 

Spring (Rituraj) - the king of all seasons - represents beauty, new life, and creation. | To understand the true significance of the spring festival (Vasant Panchami) it is important to understand the essence of Devi SarasvatI, the presiding deity of learning, aesthetics and creativity. ~ After Makara Sankranti, when the earth begins to get closer to the sun, the cold winter begins to yield to delightful spring. Vasant Panchami marks the beginning of Vasant or spring, when it is time for every tree, branch and bower to spring to new life with blooms and bursts of colour and fragrance, vibrant in festive display. [Tagore said, 'Naba Anande Jaago']

The flower (kusumā) is a beautiful symbol of life and regeneration. Hence the spring season is Kusumakar (kusumākaraḥ) or Rituraj, the king of all seasons. [BG 10.35: || ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "and of seasons I am spring"]. | [Deva and Devi probably derives from daaivic - auspicious or sattvic (noble) qualities/aspects. Sri is a respectful honorific.]

BG 10.28: || ayudhanam aham vajram || ~ "Of weapons I am the thunderbolt (vajram)".

Tagore's 'Aamra Nutan Jaubanerii Duut' (link), 'Tomaar Aason Shunya Aaji' (link) and 'Bhengechho Duaar Eshechho Jyotirmay' (link) are very interesting. [Jauban = youth (symbolising spring season); can also indicate a new era, dispelling of moribund aspects.] | In 'Aamra Nutan Jaubanerii Duut' he says 'Aamra byaRa bhAngii [...] Jhanjhhar bandhan chhinna korey diyii -- aamra bidyut...' [Bidyut = bajra/vajra or thunderbolt. Jhanjhhar bandhan = moribund aspects. byaRa = impediments, overcoming of challenges.] | Bhengechho duaar = the tearing down of metaphoric doors/impediments = the dispelling of inertia, slothfulness, apathy, illusion, delusion, confusion, ignorance, hackneyed and stale aspects, and so on. | In 'Tomaar Aason Shunya Aaji' he says: Surjo aashen agnirathe aakashpathe, ei prabhate dakhin-haatey bijoykharga dharo | Dharma tomaar shahaay, tomaar shahaay bishvabaani | amar birjo shahaay tomaar, shahaay bajrapaani. [Birjo = valiance, shaurya – the unshakable/steadfast courage of convictions.]

BG 10.31: || jhaṣāṇāḿ makaraś cāsmi || ~ "I am the crocodile among the fishes" could be a reference to Makara Sankranti and/or the foremost of matsya-avatars.

[The matsya-avatar (a person, maybe with a fish-shaped birthmark on the face) was a wise and benevolent guide through the swirling waters (real and allegoric). It is said that the first avatar of the Dasavatara - the matsya-avatar - appeared as a dolphin. ~ A dolphin is well-known for guiding ships through turbulent waters.]

[Pic: The Kurma(tortoise)-avatar, the second avatar of the Dasavatara, supporting Mandar Parvat.] Makara Sankranti (or Pongal) marks the beginning of Uttarayan. [This time of year is generally associated with Devi SarasvatI and Sri Vishnu (the stabilizer/preserver/maintainer aspect of the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being - Param-atma.)] | Uttarayan begins from the day of Makara Sankranti - heralding the arrival of spring and marking the beginning of Vasant Panchami (also known as: Shree Panchami/Sarasvati Puja) - to pay our respect/obeisance for knowledge and wisdom. | 'Vasant' comes from the word 'spring' as this festival heralds the beginning of the spring season. New leaves and blossoms appear in the trees with the promise of new life and hope. Uttarayan is a combination of two Sanskrit words, 'uttar' meaning northward and 'ayan' meaning movement towards. It celebrates the Sun-god's northward movement. ~ It was on this day that Sri Vishnu is believed to have buried (symbolically curbed) the heads of ever-increasing negativism (euphemistically known as Asuras) under the Mandar Parvat (Mt. Meru - the central allegorical 'mountain' of the world - supported on the back of the Kurma-avatar - the second avatar of the Dasavatara. Kurma = tortoise). So this occasion also represents the beginning of a new era. Many people also conflate Makara Sankranti (Uttarayan) with the Winter Solstice (which falls on December 21/22). BG 10.35: || māsānāḿ mārga-śīrṣo 'ham || ~ "Of months I am Mārgaśīrṣa" [November-December] | Kālabhairava Aṣṭamī (or Kālabhairava Jayanti) falls on Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa Aṣṭamī of the month of Mārgaśīrṣa (also spelled Mṛgaśira/Mrigashīrsha ~ November-December). On this day it is said that Lord Rudra-Śiva appeared on earth in the manifestation (avatāra) as Śrī Kālabhairava. [In Sanskrit, Kāla or kaalah = time; Bhairava = the Primordial Sound, the Shabda Brahmn - pranavah/Omkaara/pranava naad ~ very likely a reference to the voice of the Avatara (Śrī Kālabhairava - Mahakali?); OM or AUM - is very auspicious. The Avatara is  Omswaroop - manifestation of OM or AUM.] 

Makara Sankranti signifies renewal or new life (rejuvenation): to turn away from the (symbolic) 'darkness'/confusion/'fog' of delusion, ignorance, pessimism, confusion, moribund aspects et al, and to begin to build a new life with bright light/auspicious effulgence/light divine (within us) - to shine brighter and brighter (i.e. to progress, flourish and prosper). It is a festival/occasion celebrated all over the country with great fervour, gaiety and kite-flying. [Note: the Shankhachil or "Brahminy Kite" is distinctive and contrastingly coloured, with chestnut plumage except for the white head and chest and black wing tips. In India, the noble-natured Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) is considered as the contemporary representation of Garuda, the 'vaahan' (allegoric vehicle) of Sri Narayan/Vishnu. ~ The Brahminy Kite (often referred to as the Singapore Bald Eagle) is also called Shankhachil, since the white plumage of this bird is similar to the white of a conch-shell (shankha). [Brahminy probably is derived from Brahma aka Devi SarasvatI - the Creator aspect of the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being (Param-atma) and/or Brhm (pure/true/non-transient knowledge ~ light of wisdom (supreme or highest enlightenment).]

BG 10.30: || mṛgāṇāḿ ca mṛgendro 'haḿ vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām || ~ "among animals I am the lion, and among birds I am Garuḍa." | Sri Narayan (Devi SarasvatI aka the Krishna-avatar) is Garuda-Dhvaja; Garuda is the insignia (dhvaja = emblem, insignia or flag), as well as 'vehicle' (maybe some metaphor is involved here); it also indicates eagle or maybe falcon.

Jatayu and his brother Sampati were not birds but humans (very likely) belonging to the Shakuna clan (an ancient group or clan that probably displayed an Egyptian Vulture totem or insignia and/or headgear). ~ Probably this Shakuna clan was an offshoot or sub-clan of the Garuda clan (also known as the Suparnah clan) that may have displayed a Mountain Hawk Eagle totem, insignia and/or headgear. Alternatively, their countenance may have borne some resemblance with an Egyptian Vulture and eagle or falcon respectively. [Horus - the Falcon-god or the Falcon-headed man is similar to Garuda. Refer pic.] | Garuda is depicted with an eagle's beak. [Maybe, beak = nose; a prominent/distinctive eagle's beak-like nose?] He is also the 'vehicle' (depiction with wings - airman, pilot?) of the Supreme Lord? | mṛgāṇāḿ ca mṛgendro 'haḿ = The Indus (River Sindhu), which issues from a lion's mouth. The once-mighty River Indus, it is said, originates from the mouth of a lion (Senge Khabab or "Lion's Mouth") - a perennial spring (sarasa) - in Tibet. Thus, it is also called Sengge Tsangpo or 'Lion River'. This should explain Narasimha or the Nrsingh-avatar - the fourth avatar of the Dasavatara. [This avatar may have inspired the 'Sphinx'.]

BG 10.35: || māsānāḿ mārga-śīrṣo 'ham || ~ "Of months I am Mārgaśīrṣa [November-December]."

Agrahāyaṇa or Mārgaśīrṣa [November-December]: Since Vedic times, this month is known as Mārgaśīrṣa after the Nakṣatra (asterisms) Mṛgaśiras. [Note: The aligning of this name with the Mṛgaśiras Nakṣatra, gives rise to speculation that this name may have been given when the sun was near Orion at the time of vernal equinox, i.e. around 7000 years ago.] | Kālabhairava Aṣṭamī (or Kālabhairava Jayanti) falls on Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa Aṣṭamī of the month of Mārgaśīrṣa (also spelled Mṛgaśira/Mrigashīrsha ~ November-December). On this day it is said that Lord Rudra-Śiva appeared on earth in the manifestation (avatāra - with earthly form or gross body/sthula sharira) as Śrī Kālabhairava. [In Sanskrit, Kāla or kaalah = time; Bhairava = the Primordial Sound, the Shabda Brahmn - pranavah/Omkaara/pranava naad ~ very likely a reference to the voice of the Avatara (Śrī Kālabhairava - Mahakali?); OM or AUM - is very auspicious. The Avatara is Omswaroop - manifestation of OM or AUM. | The manifested/vyaktah (with earthly form/saakar - visible to mortal eyes) cosmic trimuti of SarasvatI-Lakshmi-Parvati (Durga/Mahakali) are non-different.] 

Mrigashīrsha: Sanskrit mṛgaśiras (also spelled Mārgaśīrṣa/Mṛgaśira) - the *5th nakṣatra or lunar mansion - as used in Vedic astronomy and astrology, is the constellation Orion (also known as Kaalpurush, meaning: Timeless, Eternal or Ancient; kaal or kaalah = time, in Sanskrit; Kaalpurush can also be a reference to Mahakala or Mahakali, meaning timeless, ageless). The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga/Mṛga (The Deer - possibly implying "destiny"). ~ The term Mṛgaśira is a composite of two Sanskrit words, mṛga meaning animal (can also mean: deer - symbolizing destiny) and śira meaning head or precisely, the top of the head.

[Note: Inside the great pyramids sun god Osiris is Orion (Mṛgaśira); Isis is Sirius (the brightest star as seen from Earth, apart from the sun); Horus is the Falcon-god or the Falcon-headed man. Similar to Garuda. Here it probably is a reference to the Eagle Nebula.]

*The first two carana/pada (quarters) of this nakṣatra are part of Vṛṣabha Rāśi or Taurus (bull). [Dharma (courage of convictions, adherence to one's karm for the larger good, sattvic or noble aspects/qualities etc) is denoted in Sanaatan Dharmic thought by the bull (Vṛṣabha). The illustrious god of gods is Vrisha Uttamam (Supreme Dharma or personification of dharma).] The latter half of this star belongs to Mithuna Rāśi (Gemini - the twins ~ Purusha and Prakriti? The unmanifested/avyaktah Param-atma [the Supreme Hari] and the manifested/vyaktah Avatara [Hari-Krishna]? Or is it Sridevi (Devi Lakshmi) and Bhudevi (Vasundhara/Vasudha) ~ aka the Krishna-avatar aka Prakriti?)  

Blue complexion: Wherever there is the convergence of purity (inner perfection; sattvic aspects/qualities and inner joy and tranquility - spiritual ecstasy or true contentment of self-realization) and depth (boundlessness) ~ it produces the colour blue. Meghavarnam. | The water of the seas and the sky - both are blue-hued. ~ And, since the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being combines both purity (inner perfection - insight, cognisance, unselfish and sattvic aspects/qualities and tranquility) and depth or boundlessness, the Primordial Being too is (allegorically) 'blue-hued'. (~ It's a concept - indicative of divine attribute or divinity.) | Blue also stands for: meditation/introspection, peace, tranquility (inner joy of true contentment), depth (boundlessness), stability, trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, patience, decision-making and dharma (sattvic qualities - resulting in positive, tangible actions for the larger, collective good... leading to a prosperous, progressive and vibrant society.) 


Note: Rarh (the Rāṛh region) or Rarhbhumi (Rarhpuri) was also known as 'Lala' or 'Ladha'. 'Radha' is probably a variant of 'Lala' or 'Ladha' (signifying Rarhbhumi). Rarh probably became 'Radha' from the 9th and 10th century AD onwards, and this may have given rise to the legend of Radha-Krishna. 'Radha' is also described as a waterless, dry and woody region. | Apparently the Rarh region was part of an ancient civilisation also called Rarh, and a powerful state. The Greeks called Rarh - Gangaridae or Ganga Ridae. Megasthenes referred to the people of Gangaridae as Gangarides. ~ The etymology of the word Gangaridae: it could mean Ganga-Ridai (Rarh of the Ganges - Ganga's Rarh); it could also have been derived from/as Ganga-Hrd (land with the Ganga in its heart) or Ganga-Rashtra (State of the Ganga). ~ BG 10.31: || srotasam asmi jahnavi || ~ "and of flowing waters I am the Ganga". [In one of his poems Tagore refers to himself as Jahnavi on the jata of Rudra. | The northeastern border of Rarh is located within Birbhum - Land (Bhumi) of the Brave (Bir) - where Shantiniketan is also located.]

... So, could 'Rukmani' be a metaphor for the Magadha on the western regions of ancient India? Manipura? [Perhaps the Greeks called the Magadha on the western regions of ancient India as Prasiai, Praesii or Prasioi (possibly a variant of Prachya - Eastern Country), while the Magadha on the eastern regions was referred to as Gandaritai or Gangaridae.]

Alternatively: Rukmini and Satyabhama may have been indicative of alter egos or phases – total contrasts. [The Krishna-Rukmani phase is a very short one. | There is no shortage of iconography, etc depicting Radha-Krishna, a few may exist about Krishna-Rukmini, but Krishna-Satyabhama...] Satyabhama is depicted as shallow, egotistic, imprudent, selfish, rude and haughty (bossy, arrogant, vain), and excessively materialistic (in a negative sense); someone also given to sulking. So, Krishna-Satyabhama phase is probably a superficial/pretend relationship (sort of a transactional one, perhaps). [Krishna is antaryami, and merely plays along. Although Satyabhama's wishes may have been fulfilled.] | BG 10.28: || dhenunam asmi kamadhuk || ~ "among cows I am the surabhi" (also known as kamadhenu - the allegoric "wish-fulfilling cow" ~ possibly a metaphor for prosperity, progress, auspiciousness, luck, etc.) ~ Rivers and cows are often poetically correlated in the Rig Veda. [Note: A closer look at the unicorn seals reveals a body reminiscent of a horse as well as that of a cow. So, the Unicorn could be denoting Devi SarasvatI too; she is also known as "Varadey Kaamarupinee" implying kamadhenu (the allegoric "wish-fulfilling cow" - the fulfiller of wishes ~ indicative of 'Destiny' or 'Lady Luck'. [Vara = wish.] Tagore says, 'Harina-netrey bimala-haas'; harina-netrey = in eyes of 'deer', bimala-haas = pure smile; bimala = pure). ~ Is SarasvatI and the Krishna-avatar non-different? [(Manifestation of) Garbodakshayi Vishnu - reclining on the 'ocean of Garbha'? If we can understand this, we will also understand what the concept of "Hiranyagarbhah" (Sanskrit: Hiraṇyagarbha) means. | Hiranya = diamond; Hiranya can also be indicative of 'deer' implying destiny. Garbha = womb. Hiranyagarbha can also mean: One who dwells in the womb (garbhah) of the world (Hiranya). This being is Svayambhu - Self-manifested Being. [However, can "Hiranyagarbhah" also mean, the 'diamond' born from the womb? And if so, is this 'diamond' the real 'koh-i-noor'? Personification/manifestation of 'kundalini'?] | Hiranyagarbhah is the term used in the Vedanta for the "creator" [Garbodakshayi Vishnu? The one who reclines on the 'ocean of Garbhah' (implying 'womb' - born of the womb)? ~ Is this Vishnu - the physical (with gross body [sthula sharira] or earthly form, saakar, vyaktah) Vishnu - Devi SarasvatI aka the Krishna-avatar?] | Satyajit Ray's 'Hirak Rajar Deshe' ('In the Land of the Diamond King') is most interesting. Goopi Gayen says "Baro kashte pawa gyachhe Keshto" (song: Paye PoRi Baghmama). A white tiger is seen. Besides, a diamond eye is a constant presence. ~ The Indus seal depicting twin unicorns is also interesting - possibly representing Puruṣa and Prākṛti: the nirakaar (without earthly form - since atma has no gender or form; atma is energy), avyaktah (not visible to mortal eyes) Param-atma (the Supreme Hari) and the saguna (with qualities), saakar (with earthly form or gross body) Prakriti ('Mother' Earth or 'Mother' Nature - Vasudeva (Vasudha/Vasundhara/Dharitri) aka the Krishna-avatar ~ Hari-krishna aka Sridevi/Bhudevi aka Devi Durga. [Puruṣa and Prākṛti probably indicate the metaphysical (Param-atma) and the physical (avatara) respectively ~ the metaphysical Lord Rudra-Siva and the earthly manifestation (avatāra) Sri Kalabhairava or PaTalaH Bhairava (SarasvatI-Lakshmi-Parvati/Mahakali and the Krishna-avatar.] | Tagore's 'Aanandaloke Mangalaaloke' is sublime. Bide in joy, glow auspicious, reign in grace, truth beauteous. Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram. ~ Universe in celebration, a world prays to thee, a world celebrates thee.]

The Bhagavata says || eko vai nārāyaṇa āsīn na brahmā na īśāno nāpo nāgni-samau neme dyāv-āp ṛthivī na nakṣatrāṇi na sūryaḥ || ~ "In the beginning of the creation there was only the Primal/Primeval Being Nārāyaṇa. There was no Brahmā, no Śiva, no water, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky, no sun."

|| nārāyaṇaḥ paro devas tasmāj jātaś caturmukhaḥ tasmād rudro 'bhavad devaḥ sa ca sarva-jñatāḿ gataḥ || ~ "Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme/Primordial/Primeval Being ~ from whom Brahmā was born, from whom Śiva was born." [Here Brahmā and Śiva refer to various aspects and to creation.] | Supreme/Primordial/Primeval Being = The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being - Param-atma.

The Upaṇiṣad calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahmn. Soul of the Universe = Param Vishva Atma ~ the motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe. [Atma is energy, and therefore has no earthly form, shape or gender. Therefore it.]

The seal bearing the motif of a 3-headed animal representing the bull, unicorn and goat is the seal of Dvarkadheesh Vasudeva Krishna (also known as Keshavah). [Vasudeva = Deity/deva of the Earth (Vasudha or Vasundhara).] The symbology of the Bull: it represents Dharma (sattvic aspects, dharmic principles) in Sanaatan Dharmic thought, as well as insignia of the Vrishni. (Vasudeva Krishna, the Lord of Mathura and Dvarka, is also known as Varshneya). The Unicorn (eka-shringa or one-horned horse) is imagery, it signifies blue lotus (krishna kamal), implying rarity or uniqueness. The goat probably indicates Aries (or maybe, the Mṛgaśira - the constellation Orion - also known as Kaalpurush, meaning: Timeless, Eternal or Ancient; kaal or kaalah = time, in Sanskrit; can also mean: Mahakala/Mahakali or Kalika). ~ The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga/Mṛga (The Deer - probably implying "destiny"). | Keshavah: One whose rays illumine the cosmos (possibly indicative of: motive power and guiding spirit; also supreme or highest enlightenment - the stage where nirvana is attained, the state of a Buddha), and one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva) [implying 'Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram'.] | The two Indus "Yogi Seals" depicting a deity/deva with three faces, seated in yogic position on a throne, wearing bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress is most interesting.

[Rarh is also the birthplace of a galaxy of luminaries: Kapila Muni, Maharishi Patanjali, Jayadeva (the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda), Kalidasa, Sri Chaitanyadev, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Raja Rammohan Roy, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar, Michael Madhusudan Dutta, Kaliprasanna Singha, Satyendra Nath Bose, Rashbehari Bose, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa-deb, Swami Vivekananda, Sri Aurobinda, Abanindranath Tagore (Aban Thakur), Gaganendranath Tagore, Premendra Mitra, Rajshekhar Basu, Yamini Ray, Ramkinkar Baij, among others.]

Rukmini/Satyabhama is very likely a male. And so, some amount of envy or jealousy ('mind games', emotional and/or mental burden) cannot quite be ruled out. As to why the Krishna-avatar refrains from using her special powers on Rukmini/Satyabhama? Maybe to bring out the various shades of gray. To teach (impart lessons), to set examples - through her words, actions and deeds, and/or to bring to the fore latent, ignored or undiscussed aspects (of human nature and/or societal aspects, dynamics), also for people to see (and imbibe) about responding to situations/circumstances, etc. [Since this avatar is 'Leela Purushottam'.] | Jambavan was part of Treta. So the Krishna-avatar could not have married Jambavani in Dvapar (~ assuming that this avatar was a male.) ~ As for the Krishna-avatar's supposed 16,108 'wives' or even 700,000 'wives' and 180,000 'sons' - these figures (very likely) came about courtesy the many cultic groups and movements that came up in this avatar's name - especially the 'Bhakti Movement'. Members of this movement (irrespective of gender) considered themselves "married" to the Krishna-avatar. | The 'Bhakti Movement' being a reform movement, it could be that many of these stories (including those involving the Krishna-avatar and Arjun) were woven in order to mainstream some marginalized groups, such as the 'tritiya prakriti' (an umbrella term), besides initiating widow remarriage, etc. ~ A multitude of retelling, painting/iconography, poems, songs, music, stage plays et al later... bits and pieces of these (probably) have (gradually) made their way into the narrative concerning the Krishna-avatar. | Maybe by using the name, imagery, iconography, allegory etc of the Krishna-avatar (no less), helped bring about a positive change of course - i.e. a positive change (transformation) in well-entrenched mindset, perception, conditioning, and the like - quicker than usual.


BG 10.37: || vṛṣṇīnāṁ vāsudevo ’smi pāṇḍavānāṁ dhanañ-jayaḥ munīnām apy ahaṁ vyāsaḥ kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ || ~ "Among the Vrishnis I am Vaasudev (Lord of Mathura and Dvarka), Arjun among the Paandavs, Vyaas among the sages, and Ushanaa among the poets/great thinkers."

pāṇḍavānāṁ dhanañ-jayaḥ (Arjun among the Paandavs) ~ since only Arjun could comprehend the Krishna-avatara's words.

... Is Vyaas (Maharshi Veda Vyasa) also part of "[...] Shhakol khaelaye korbo khaela ei aami - ahaa, natun naamey daakbe morey, [...] aashbo jaabo chirodiner shei aami" (link)?

However, who is Ushanaa - the great poet/great thinker – 'kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ'?

In *'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu' (link) Tagore says, 'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu [...] Tumi Kabi-r dheyan-chhabi purbajanam-smriti'. ~ He also says 'gaan gaye Bishvakabi, gaan gaye chandra-taara-rabi'. In "Suneel Saagorer Shyamal kinaarey" (link) he says 'gaanete chinalem shhe chira-chinarey'.

['Chandra' could be the crescent-shaped moon adorning the forehead of Rudra-Siva. In 'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu' Tagore says, 'Nandanerii Nandini go chandralekhaye chnaoya' implying Rudra (chandralekhaye chnaoya) and the fabled Nandan-kanan (Nandan garden). 'Taara' could be a reference to goddess Kalika. She is also known as Maa Tara. The Pole Star or Lode Star (Dhruva Tara or Shuktara - the Morning Star) is also known as the Guiding star. | Rabi = goddess Sarasvati is the manifestation/personification/embodiment of the Sun. However, is 'Rabi' a reference to himself or the sun or Devi Sarasvati, or all three? [Rabindranath Tagore is fondly known as Rabi Thakur. | Bishvakabi = poet of the world, universal bard.]

*'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu': The effulgent Sun (Savitr) appears like a golden dot (bindu) in the sky. Devi Sarasvati is the manifestation, personification or embodiment of the Sun, and is therefore also known as Savitri - the goddess of dawn. ~ In 'Ayi Bhubanamanomohini' (link), Tagore says 'Pratham prabhat uday taba gaganey'. He also says: 'Pratham pracharita taba banbhabhaney Gyanadharma (wisdom, the enlightened 'way of life' - Arya Dharma) kato Kabyakahini'. [It brings to mind 'Adikavi' Maharshi Valmiki and Maharshi Veda Vyas; due to the goddess' blessings the former overcame his prarabda karma (negative karma) and composed the Ramayana ('The Exertions of Sri Ram'), while the latter was assisted by the Devi Herself [Sarasvati (eka shringa horse/Unicorn or one-horned horse - implying rarity or uniqueness) and Sri Ganesh (eka-danta/one-tusked) are non-different] to compile his magnum opus - the Mahabharata (originally titled: 'Jaya' - Victory; Mahabharata - 'The Great History of the Bharatas' is a reference to the Purus or Puruvansh - descendents of Raja Yayati's youngest-born, Puru; vansh = clan/kula/lineage).] | Aadikavi = the first poet, foremost poet or the primordial poet. Valmiki's original name is Ratnakara. Valmiki means: 'one who sits in an anthill'. Maybe, it is indicative of his control of the Self and/or Highest or Supreme enlightenment - the stage where nirvana is attained (the state of a Buddha).

In 'Pratham Aadi Taba Shakti' (link) Tagore says, 'Tumi Aadikabi, Kabiguru tumi heye' ~ Maharshi Valmiki is also known as "Aadikavi". Tagore is known as 'Kabiguru', which means the guru of poets. His genius enriched whatever it touched. ~ In this composition ('Pratham Aadi Taba Shakti') Tagore hints at his source of inspiration; he also credits the Goddess for his multifaceted talent and vast oeuvre. ~ However, is Maharshi Valmiki and Tagore part of "[...] Shhakol khaelaye korbo khaela ei aami - ahaa, natun naamey daakbe morey, [...] aashbo jaabo chirodiner shei aami"?

In 'Jakhan PoRbe Na Mor' (link) Tagore says "... tara-r pane cheye cheye naiba aamaye daakle". He also says: "Takhhan ke bole go shhei prabhate nei aami. Shhakol khaelaye korbo khaela ei aami - ahaa, natun naamey daakbe morey, bandhbe natun baahu-dorey, aashbo jaabo chirodiner shei aami."

The 'Saptarshi' were Brahmarishis (Sanskrit: brahmarṣi). They had attained the highest divine knowledge or spiritual knowledge - Brahmajnana (knowledge of Brahmn - Param-atma). Thus Brahmarishi = the highest Rishi. [Sanskrit: rṣi signifies enlightenment, wisdom and knowledge - the light of wisdom; it was also an honorific for highly learned and knowledgeable persons.]

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System. It is one of the 'navagraha' (nine planets, nava-ratnas?). However, Brihaspati (Bruhaspati) is also known as Deva-guru (guru or preceptor of the [ancient] Deva people or maybe of Higher Beings?) Brihaspati is the regent of Jupiter and is often identified with the planet. He is also known as Guru (teacher or preceptor), the deva/deity of wisdom and eloquence. Brihaspati also represents dharma, philosophy, education, teaching and the dispensation of knowledge. | Tagore is known by the sobriquet "Gurudev" meaning 'revered master'. [Guru-dev and Deva-guru is quite similar.]

Brihaspati is said to have attained the position of preceptor of the Devas by performing penances (tapasya?) on the banks of *Prabhas Tirtha (popularly known as Somnath Patan, part of Somnath SarasvatI Yatra). (Could tapasya be a euphemism for steadfast karm-yog?) Lord Shiva (Rudra-Siva?) granted him this position, as well as his position as one of the Navagraha (Navaratna?) | Brihaspati’s element is ether or space or Akasha Tattva (i.e. Akasha = Space/Sky/Aether; Tattva = Essence). ~ However, could this imply kayaheen? | *The Krishna-avatar is believed to have discarded the mortal coil here.

In 'Jagate Aanandajoggye' (link) Tagore says: "... Tomaar joggye diyechho bhaar, bajaai aami banshi --"

Is this joggya (yagna) a reference to what our ancients called 'Ashvamedha Yagna'? In other words: a euphemism for the positive (transformative) change of course brought about by the Param-atma? ['Ashva' could be a reference to the Unicorn - one-horned horse or eka-shringa horse, implying rarity or uniqueness - blue lotus, krishna kamal ~ Devi SarasvatI aka the Krishna-avatar.]

Tagore's 'Aamra shhobaii raaja aamader ei raajar rajottey' (link) is also very interesting. He says 'aamra noi bandha noi daasher raajar tRaashher dashottey [...]' | Is this "Raja" a reference to Bhuta Nath? [Nath = Monarch or Ruler.] ... Are Byomkesh, Rudra and Bhuta Nath (Bhuter Raja?) non-different? | One of the Byomkesh stories is 'Khunji Khunji NaRii'. [Narii = a woman.] Bhuta Nath is a woman? [Is Aranyadev or The 21st Phantom (believed to be an immortal ghost; also known as "The Ghost Who Walks", "The Man Who Cannot Die" and "Guardian of the Eastern Dark") modeled after Bhuta Nath? [PanchaMahaBhuta or MahaPanchaBhuta implies the five elements of nature, viz., fire, air, water, soil/earth and aether (space) - that constitute the human body. ~ So, Bhuta Nath could also imply Lord/Master of Mankind.]

In 'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu' (link) Tagore says, 'Nandanerii Nandini go chandralekhaye chnaoya' implying Rudra (chandralekhaye chnaoya) and the fabled Nandan-kanan (Nandan garden). ~ The Garden of Eden, in Shambhala tradition?

shambhala-grama-mukhyasya brahmanasya mahatmanah (of the Kalkiḥ Puran) could be a reference to Bhagavan Kalkiḥ. | shambhala-grama-mukhyasya (chief/ruler of shambhala) could imply "Shambhu Nath" (the Monarch/Ruler/Guardian [Nath] of Shambhala). Brahmanasya implies erudition and wisdom (Supreme or highest enlightenment). Mahatmanah implies higher soul or great soul. Tagore's 'Oi Mahamanaba Aashe' (Cometh the Great One - link) is very interesting. [The Kalkiḥ-avatar is synonymous with the Krishna-avatar. Maybe that's why this avatar is regarded as the second coming of the Krishna-avatar. In other words, one who was known as Krishna then, shall be known as Kalkiḥ now. However, the 10th avatar is stated as indescribable (kimapi). Maybe since this avatar is a 'Sampoorna Avatar' - a total, complete, all-encompassing avatar (indicative of the Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop - the Universal Form of the Primordial Being), and such an avatar is unprecedented. [This avatar's 'vehicle' is the white winged horse/flying horse (Devadutta).] | Avatar comes from the Sanskrit 'Avatarana' or 'Avatirna' (manifest or descent of the unmanifested Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being [Param-atma or Brahmn] into earthly form or sthula sharira). Avatar = manifestation. ~ Except for the Parasurama-avatar (a Chiranjivi [Sanskrit: ciranjivi] ~ "immortal" living being) all other avatars of the Dasavatara could be the Param-atma. | The Parasurama-avatar is stated to re-emerge as the martial guru of the Kalkiḥ-avatar. However, why the Ram-avatar invoked Devi Durga before his battle with Ravana - to seek her blessings ~ is a riddle. | Yajña or Svayambhuva Manu (the 1st Manu) - who is said to have (earlier) appeared as Raja Dasarath (the Ram-avatar's father) and as Vasudev (the Krshna-avatar's father) is stated to finally appear as Vishnuyashas/Vishnuyash Sharma (the Kalkiḥ-avatar's father) - at yuga-sandhyāyām ~ at the conjunction/cusp of two yugs [Kaliyug and Sat/Satya/Krita Yug of the next Maha-Yuga; sandhyāyām = evening, twilight, cusp.] | Yajña, better known as Svayambhuva Manu (the first "Manu") is said to have performed tapasya at Naimisa on the banks of the Gomati river - for acquiring the privilege of having the Eternal Cosmic Being (Param-atma) as his offspring in three different lifetimes. So, this probably is part of his wish-fulfillment. | "Manu" is a title - for the earlier law-givers. [There are fourteen Manu. Each "Manu" is endowed with great knowledge and wisdom.] We are in the seventh Manvantara, named as Vaivasvatha Manvantara (after the current Manu, Vaivasvatha Manu or Vamana; the fabled Buddhist land or mythical kingdom of Shambhala is believed to have been his ashram/abode). The seventh and current "Manu" (honorific for the overseer of a manavantar) - Vaivasvata Manu or Surya (original name: Satyavrata) - is also the father of Ikshvaku (progenitor of the Ikshvaku lineage, also known as: Aikṣvāka lineage/kula) - to which greats like Mandhata, Dilipa, Bhagiratha, Raghu and Sri Ram belonged. [Ikshvaku or Ikhaku or Ikkhaku; Skt. Ifahvaku; Pali: OjcTcaka, Okkaka. | Akkadian may be a variant of Ikshvaku.] ~ Satyavrata built specially-designed ship (nao) before the last great flood/deluge (Mahajal Pralay) - as per the advise of the Matsya-Avatar (one-horned fish). Noukeshwar is at best a title or honorific, meaning: Principal/Chief/Captain of the nao. (Here 'nao' or 'boat' indicates specially-designed-and-equipped-ship. ~ It could also be an allegoric ship. And so, the 'Mahajal Pralay' (great flood/deluge) too could be allegoric.) ~ Whether 'Noukeshwar' has been abbreviated to 'Noah' (due to the passage of time + change in phonetics), and/or whether Satyavrata aka Vaivasvata Manu is also referred to as "Noah" or not ~ my guess is as good as yours. In 'Tumi Ushar Shonar Bindu' Tagore says, 'Aakashparer Indradhanu dharaar pare nowa'. [Rainbow is called Meghdhanush, Ramdhanu or Indra-dhanuSha in Sanskrit. It symbolizes hope. Indra-dhanuSha = bow of Lord Indra, king of the gods (Devas = ancient Deva people or maybe Higher Beings). "Indra" was a title; the ruler of the earth was also called "Indra". Purusha-uttama is Mahendra (Lord of Indra). | Could Indradhanu (symbolising hope) be Noah's arc?] Can Manusmriti be considered as some sort of Constitution of earlier eras? [Though mistranslation and misinterpretation by later translators or redactors is a possibility, besides change in phonetics, meanings (of words, terminology, etc) too is a possibility.] | Manava Grihyasutra, Manava Sulbasutra and Manava Dharmashastra (Manusmriti or rules/laws of Manu) texts are ascribed to Svayambhuva Manu - the first "Manu". [Original name: Yajña.]

In the circumstances when humankind finds itself without a solution - at such a time it is only the Param-atma (the Sanaatana Purusha in an earthly form - avatara) who can help humanity come out of the ignorance/confusion/chaos and rejuvenate itself. ~ A lone-warrior, the Kalkiḥ-avatar (the 10th Vishnu) shall carry the tenacity, determination, dedication and humility of the Ram-avatar (the 7th Vishnu), the extraordinary calibre, courage of convictions, keen insight, good judgment, nonpareil intelligence and illumined wisdom of the Krishna-avatar (the 8th Vishnu) and the compassion, forgiveness and magnanimity of the Buddh-avatar (the 9th Vishnu). The final 'Preserver-Rejuvenator' who shall set things in order (i.e. bring about a steady, gradual and positive transformation) shall be known as the Kalkiḥ-avatar - the dispeller/annihilator of Kali Yug (~ the one who will gradually roll back the ghor Kaliyug phase - euphemistically referred to as the 'Iron Age of ignorance/confusion/stagnation and degeneration/decay'). It would be beyond the capacity of ordinary humans to assess and understand the phenomenon that would be termed as Bhagavan Kalkiḥ (the Kalkiḥ-avatar or Kalkiḥ-Maitreya) - the transformative, renaissance personage - Yug Purush. Thus (perhaps) this avatara is termed as kim api (indescribable). | This avatar is depicted as carrying or wielding a flaming comet like a sword (dhUmakEtum iva kimapi karALam). In Tagore's words: Jakhan aanen tamohaari aalok-tarabari. | Tamohaari = to dispel the allegoric 'fog' (tamas) of confusion, ignorance, stasis, degeneration, etc (of the ghor kaliyug phase or the euphemistic 'Iron Age of confusion/ignorance/degeneration/decay'). [Kalkiḥ, also referred to as Kalkin and Kalaki, is often a metaphor for "Eternity" or "Time". (Time is Kaalah in Sanskrit; can also be a reference to Mahakali or Kalika.) ~ Another etymology (for "Kalkiḥ") from Sanskrit is 'white horse' - Unicorn (one-horned [eka-shringa] horse) symbolising rarity and uniqueness) and by extension 'Ashvamedh Yagna' (~ steadfast karm-yog to bring about a transformation or positive turnaround, helmed by the 'unicorn'). Aalok = effulgent; of dazzling light. aalok-tarabari = 'sword' of light. | Unicorn (eka shringa or one-horned horse) could be indicative of equine features (horse-jawed or horse-faced).]

The appearance of the jagat-patih (Lord of Creation/Cosmic Ruler) would be during: athāsau yuga-sandhyāyām: at the conjunction/cusp of two yugs (between Kaliyug and Sat/Satya/Krita Yug of the next cycle/maha-yug; sandhyāyām = evening, twilight, dusk, cusp.) ~ At this time the 'Iron Age' of ignorance/confusion/degeneration/decay - i.e. the negative aspects of Kaliyug (the last-stage of Kaliyuga or the ghor Kaliyug phase) will be at its peak. || bhavane vishnuyashasah kalkih pradurbhavishyati || ~ The Kalkiḥ-avatar will appear (prādúr) in the home (bhavanê) of Vishnuyasha (Vishnuyashas Sharma) in the future (bhavishyati). And be born to Vishnuyasha (janitā viṣṇu-yaśaso) and Sumati. Vishnuyasha (who is actually an incarnation of Svayambhuva Manu, the 1st Manu - lawgiver) will very likely also be an erudite and eminent person belonging to Shambhala. This avatar will also entrust the responsibility for ruling the earth to two powerful kings named Maru (Ratna Maru?) and Devapi (Devadutta?) | This is what one gathers from the Kalkiḥ Puran, Srimad Bhagavatam, Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran and Padma Puran. | The end of Kaliyug (the last-stage of Kaliyuga or the ghor Kaliyug phase) is the symbolic Dark Age - the Age of Machines or Metal - the allegoric 'Iron Age' of ignorance/confusion/degeneration/decay - since dharmic principles, shared/civilisational values, ethics, the doctrine of karm-yog etc will fall below the minimum level; humanism, comprehension and cognitive abilities, etc of humankind too will fall below the minimum level ~ this will affect or impact their worldview, thought processes, social conditions, mettle, calibre, and so on. Thus, humankind will become symbolic machines/robots. The end of Kaliyug is thus the lowest point. The Kalkiḥ-avatar will appear to bring about the transition from the end of Kaliyug to Sat/Satya/Krita Yug of the next Maha-yug or Chatur-yuga. As per the Mahabharata, this avatar will be an effulgent and greatly intelligent Brahmana (implying erudition and lack of narrow perspective, someone possessing a broader vision) - an erudite, and valiant (shaurya) personage who will possess courage of convictions and sattva guna-s (noble traits and qualities). This avatar will (thus) be a cogent, sagacious, clear-sighted and far-sighted avatar, characterized by steady, earnest and energetic effort ~ someone with dhrti (courage of the mind - resilient, steadfast, patient and displaying fortitude and endurance). [Valour or Shaurya is a special human quality, usually demonstrated in the performance of extraordinary and unselfish deeds (nishkam karm) in the face of great challenges - for the greater good, e.g. to build a better and vibrant society.] | The purpose will be to stem the degeneration (downward slide), to stabilize, and to bring forth a steady and positive change of course or a turn-around. In other words: the avatars manifest themselves to correct or reset the course, whenever societal 'churn' becomes too great. BG 4.8 || paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge-yuge || ~ paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam = to curb malevolence/negativities (including the negativism that resides in the hearts and minds of humanity, viz., ennui, apathy, indifference, ignorance, cynicism, moribund aspects, finger-pointing and other members of that brood), for the collective good of humankind. The purpose/objective is to revive/rejuvenate dharma - sattvic or noble aspects/qualities (dharma-samsthapanarthaya) and to reinvigorate the doctrine of karm-yog (tangible actions with forethought, including selfless or nishkam actions - individual or collaborative ~ for a progressive and vibrant society to emerge). | sambhavami yuge-yuge = I manifest Myself (sambhavami) yuge-yuge - yug/era after yug/era (time and time again). | keshava dhrita-kalki-sharira jaya jagadisha hare: The Param-atma as the Kalkiḥ-avatar. Jagadisha = Lord of Creation. Hare = dispeller of misery, difficulties, etc. | Keshavah: One whose rays illumine the cosmos (possibly indicative of: motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe; also highest cosmic intelligence [cosmic mind], and supreme or highest enlightenment). Keshavah also means: one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva). [Implying 'Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram'.] | The avatar will reside in Shambhala as a householder, along with the consorts, Ramaa and Padmavati. However, given that the Krishna-avatar is a woman, this avatar too would very likely be a woman.] 

The fabled Buddhist land of Shambhala is a mystical kingdom that guards the most sacred spiritual teachings of the world, including the Kalachakra ('Wheel of Time'), the pinnacle of Buddhist wisdom. Perhaps, Shambhala is synonymous with Shangri-la; or, maybe, the lost kingdom of Shangri-La was inspired by the legend of Shambala. Shambhala (ruled over by Lord Maitreya/Buddha Maitreya/Maitreya Buddha - the future Buddha or the next Buddha-to-be after Gautam Buddha/Buddha Sakyamuni) is also mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra + other texts that predate Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet. | Another meaning of Shambhala: "Bhal" refers to the forehead. Therefore, Shambhala can also mean: "Born of the Forehead" or "Place of the Forehead" ~ implying "destiny". | Shambhala is the land of great Rishi-s. [Rishi = an honorific for highly learned, wise and enlightened persons.] Guru Nanakdev-ji called it Sach Khand. It is our past - our future - yet exists in our present. It is the 'land of bliss' (eternal bliss/spiritual ecstasy of self-realization or true contentment ~ Sat-cit-ānanda) of the earliest Vedic times. Feluda's Gyanpeeth? It is also called "Aryavarsha" (abode of Arya people; Land of the Noble Ones) ~ the land from which the Vedas (Book of Knowledge or Book of Enlightenment) came from. [Veda comes from the root 'Vid' which means, "to know"; Veda has also given rise to the word Vidya - knowledge). Veda is not to be misconstrued for religious texts or scriptures, since knowledge does not have narrow connotations. | The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being (Param-atma) is known as Aryaman (the noble one). | Tagore's 'Aanandaloke Mangalaaloke' (link) celebrates Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram.]

Shambhala = Shambhu (Shiv) + Le (of). ~ So, is Shambhala (a Sanskrit word that to the Tibetans means "the source of happiness" [sat-cit-ananda?]) also known as Shivalaya? Is Shambhala the land of Shambhu Nath - the Monarch (Nath) or Guardian/Protector of Shambhala? Is this Shambhu Nath the "Sankara" of BG 10.23: rudranam sankaras casmi (~ "Of all the Rudras I am Sankara" - Rudra-Siva)? [There are eleven Rudras, of whom Sankara, Rudra-Siva, is preeminent.] | Shambhala is also considered to be the gateway between the physical and spiritual world ~ Haridvar? Some believe it to be the actual Manas Sarovara (symbolizing Kundalini; Feluda's Gyanpeeth and Dhakuria Lake?), Kailash as well as Rishikesh or **'Agni Tirtha'. It is also believed to be the real Prayag. | Shambhala is also regarded as the world's spiritual powerhouse. | The Hindu and Buddhist alike regard Mt Meru (the central 'mountain' of the world) as the location of the fabled Buddhist land or mythical kingdom of Shambhala. [Mt Meru, supported on the back of the Kurma-avatar, is taken as the true centre of the planet and the world's spiritual powerhouse; it is the heartbeat of whole universe, the base of spiritual consciousness, heart of divinity; it is the center of the cosmos. Its summit is believed to align to the wheeling constellation of Ursa Major, the Seven Stars that circle the Pole (~ Pole Star or Lode Star - Dhruva Tara or Shuktara - the Morning Star. Also known as the Guiding star.) Our national anthem is 'The Morning Song of India' ~ an ode to that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. Lord of Destiny] - who (in Tagore's own words) "has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved.").] | BG 10.23: || meruh sikharinam aham || ~ "and of mountains I am Meru." ~ Mt. Meru is very likely an allegorical mountain. 

**All creation-related work is the work of Fire (i.e. Cosmic Fire - Cosmic Light, Light Divine, Divine Effulgence - Brahm-jyotih or the impersonal, unmanifested Primal Creative Energy - Absolute OM or Absolute Brahmn). ... The dynamism in us is also Fire. (Agni/Fire = kundalini energy/power - that 'expand' the mind or 'ignite' the mind.) ~ The Kundalini 'Fire' causes enlightenment of the brain cells. But enflaming the Kundalini 'Fire' requires service to the fellow beings, to the society (steadfast, selfless/nishkam service or actions - that contributes towards a better society.) And/or to be a Sadhaka - of knowledge and wisdom - and contribute to the society. | Kundalini is the living and conscious energy - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine.]

One has to dedicate oneself to nishkam karm - else the Kundalini 'Fire' is not ignited.

Agni: exists as Cosmic Fire, Solar Fire and as Frictional Fire. | In the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine there exists a subtle and dormant coil of spiritual energy known as the kundalini. The Kundalini Fire is Frictional Fire, when it is below the diaphragm. When it is above the diaphragm, it is already Solar Fire, and when it reaches the brain, it is Electric Fire (brilliant white). As one progresses regularly (in nishkam karm), the brilliance of the 'Golden disc/chakra' (Solar Fire) grows. Just as the morning Sun who is Golden in colour grows to brilliant white, the 'Golden disc/chakra' visualized at the eyebrow centre (ajna chakra or brow chakra - the 6th chakra - denoting spiritual guidance) rises to Ajnea center/chakra and shines forth like a diamond disc/chakra (brilliant white). ~ This is the final state of the Kundalini 'Fire'. When this 'chakra' opens, it is deemed as the opening of the (symbolic) Third Eye. | In the Feluda story "Ghurghutiar Ghatana" there is a German Lock which could be opened only by combination. The central character of the story made his parrot memorize the combination of the lock through a small poetic verse termed "Hneyali" (riddle). The Parrot would say "Tri-Nayan-O-Tri-Nayan-Ek-tu-Zero", which if literally translated means: the person with three eyes, please rest for sometime.  

The sixth chakra, the third eye chakra, is located in the center of the forehead above the eyebrows. The orientation is self-reflection and the main function is seeing, cognisance and accurate interpretation. In this chakra, an individual aims to open his or her internal wisdom and see at a deeper, more perceptive level. One can do this though the third eye center which is located between the eyes and is the organ for inner perception. Opening the third eye allows an individual to see the big picture, transcend egocentricity, and find the deeper meaning inherent in all things (para vidya or non-transient knowledge - the light of wisdom or supreme/highest enlightenment). 

As inner sight develops, illusions disappear, clarity begins, and consciousness extends yet another step beyond what was available through the lower five chakras alone. As an individual makes his or her way up from the root chakra and out the crown of the head (sahasrara), he or she is gaining insight and delving deeper into his or her internal wisdom. And so, a person's actions become not only significant and purposeful, but also thoughtful. This road to thoughtful action is cognisance and accurate interpretation, insight - it guides an individual towards responding and acting appropriately (~ the path of "dharma" and "nishkam karm-yog" - for the greater/larger/collective good).

[The Krishna-avatar is associated with an allegoric golden disc (chakra). It signifies 'Solar Fire'. The Kalkiḥ-avatar, on the other hand, is totally associated with kundalini (Electric Fire - depicted as brilliant white ~ indicative of the final stage of kundalini 'fire'). | Krishna-consciousness arises in the heart, Kalkiḥ-consciousness arises in the mind. It is visualized as a great white light entering the forehead ('Captain Spark' of 'Joi Baba Felunath' - a Feluda story. Sherlock Holmes, Feluda aka Pradosh Chandra Mitra and Byomkesh Bakshi - modeled on whom?)] 

The 7 Chakras are the energy centers in our body in which energy flows through. ~ Kundalini is vital for all the 7 Chakras (centers of life-force or vital energy) to be fully 'awakened'. ~ This happens when kundalini reaches the 7th chakra - the Sahasrara or the crown chakra (the highest chakra). This is the chakra of (symbolic) one thousand petals. Sahasrara is unique in many ways. All other chakras feature (symbolic) upward, pointing lotuses. In the Sahasrara, the lotuses point downward, symbolizing freedom from the mundane (i.e. inner perfection - tranquility, sattvic aspects, or self-realization), and divine rain from its petals (*does it have anything to do with Ketaksha and/or Pushkara?) ~ The Sahasrara is considered beyond most symbolic representations, although the chakra is usually perceived as white. ~ The Sahasrara is considered beyond senses, sense organs, and life-force. As such, it is often described without a seed syllable, although some sources depict it with an OM.  

The 7th chakra or Crown Chakra (Sahasrara) is the chakra that integrates all the chakras with their respective qualities. It is the last milestone of the evolution of human awareness. This happens when kundalini passes thro' the top of the head, at the fontanel area. When kundalini reaches the Sahasrara - the (symbolic) 'lotus petals' open and enlightenment takes place. ~ This state is also said to be the state of complete wisdom (Supreme or Highest enlightenment) ~ the state of a Buddha. [Buddha = the Enlightened One.] 

A two-petalled lotus symbolizes Ajna chakra (or brow chakra - denoting spiritual guidance). The left petal represents the moon or the ida nadi and the right petal represents the sun or the pingala nadi - which meet the central Sushumna nadi (here nadi = channel; Sushumna nadi is one of the body's main energy channels) before rising to the crown chakra, Sahasrara (i.e. the 7th chakra or crown chakra - the highest chakra). ['Adrishyo Trikon' of the Byomkesh stories. Trikon = triangle.] 

Within the (metaphoric) two-petalled lotus is a perfectly round circle that symbolizes the "shoonya" or the void - symbolizing the state completely devoid of ego (ahamkara). In this circle the symbol OM is written. 'OM' is the mantra and the symbol of ajna chakra (the third eye chakra, brow chakra or 6th Chakra - symbolically depicted as a 'golden disc/chakra'). ~ Sushumna awakening is part of kundalini awakening. The two additional energy channels that play an important role in our energy system are "ida" and "pingala". [Perhaps all this also symbolizes the allegorical 'manas-sarovara'. Also implied by Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake' in 'Shonar Kella' ('The Golden Fortress'). | Durga means fortress, Durga ('the Invincible') means Aparajita or Adwitiya (Peerless). Dhakuria Lake = Devi Parvati/Durga is also known as Dhakeshvari. Lake = spring, pool (sarasa), implying SarasvatI.]

The Sahasrara is considered beyond most symbolic representations, although the chakra is usually perceived as white. The Sahasrara (the 7th chakra) was not considered an in-body chakra; (earlier) it was pictured as lying atop the head (~ possibly indicative of 'crown jewel'). [Where could the real Manipura be? This kingdom was perhaps part of the ancient Himalaya kingdom. It is unlikely that this kingdom was part of Northeastern parts of India. In Himalayan Buddhism and in Tibetan mythology Nagarjuna is called the Second Buddha.] | BG 10.28: || sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ || ~ "and of serpents I am Vāsuki." ~ Here sarpāṇām could also be an allegory for the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. Upon 'awakening', it rises in a sensation akin to a slithering reptile, up the spinal column (Meru-danda) - also represented by the (allegoric) Mt Meru (Mandar Parvat) in the samudra-manthan or kshira-sagar manthan story. When kundalini is fully 'awakened,' it (in a manner of speaking) ignites the brain cells - implying allegoric 'crown jewel'. | BG 10.23: || meruh sikharinam aham || ~ "and of mountains I am Meru." (~ Here Mt Meru could be an allegory for Sahasrara Chakra - the 7th chakra, also known as the crown chakra - the highest chakra). | If we look at the human brain: there is the left hemisphere (side 1) and the right hemisphere (side 2) ~ the area in the middle is (allegorically) occupied by an allegoric 'serpent'. ~ Therefore, in a manner of speaking, we can say: kundalini is 'serpent power'. [Kunda = "to coil or to spiral" - an allusion to the gentle and complete 'awakening' of the the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. Upon 'awakening', it rises in a sensation akin to a slithering reptile, up the spinal column (Meru-danda).] | The power of kundalini can be allegorically termed as 'serpent power'. ~ It may be that our ancients termed the gentle and complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of the kundalini energy/power as 'a serpent's crown jewel' or 'the priceless jewel found inside the head of a serpent'. ['Seemonto-Heera' of the Byomkesh titles.] ~ 'Coz in the final state of the Kundalini 'Fire' - when kundalini passes through the top of the head, at the fontanel area, when the kundalini reaches the Sahasrara (the 7th chakra or crown chakra - the highest chakra) it (allegorically) shines forth like a diamond disc/chakra (signified by brilliant white - an allusion to 'crown jewel'. BG 10.28: || sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ || ~ "and of serpents (implying kundalini energy) I am Vāsuki.") [~ Tagore's sublime 'Nirjarer Swapnabhango' ('Awakening or Rousing of the Fountain/Spring') brilliantly brings out the gentle and complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of the kundalini energy). Spring = fountain, sarasa; Feluda's Gyanpeeth and Dhakuria Lake. BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || and BG 10.35: || ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "and of seasons I am spring."]

The Byomkesh titles are also quite interesting, viz Seemonto-Heera, Chorabali, Agnibaan, Chitrachor, Durgo Rahashya, Amriter Mrityu, Shailo Rahashya, Manimandan, Achin Pakhi, Kahen Kabi Kalidas, Adrishyo Trikon, Khunji Khunji Nari, Adwitiya, Magnomainak, Hneyalir Chhando etc. | 'Seemonto-Heera' could be a reference to the gentle and complete 'awakening' of the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. [Triangle = trikon.] | Tagore and Sukumar Ray influenced Satyajit Ray. Feluda, a fan of Sherlock Holmes (he dutifully visited 221B Baker Street as a pilgrim), recited nonsense rhymes from Sukumar Ray's 'Abol Tabol'. Sharadindu Bandopadhyay (author of the 33 stories featuring the dignified and sophisticated Byomkesh) too was a fan of Sherlock Holmes). Satyanveshi Byomkesh Bakshi (like the dynamic and intrepid Feluda) also uses his oratory skill at the climactic scenes, often quotes Tagore to explain a certain situation to Ajit; in the later stories we find that the nonsense rhymes of 'Abol Tabol' by Sukumar Ray too had attracted his interest. Byomkesh, who calls himself "Satyanveshi", is also an avid reader of the Mahabharata. [Satya = Truth; Anveshi = seeker, i.e. one who is searching for the Truth.]

*Ketaksha means, "raining eyes" (aksha = eye). ~ Perhaps it was originally meant as: spring (sarasa) of the raining eyes. However, with the passage of time and changing phonetics, Ketaksha probably became Katas. ~ The ancient Katas Raj temple complex is believed to date back to the Mahabharata era. [Mahabharata = the Great history of the Bharatas.] | It is also associated with the 'Shiv-Sati' story as well as death of Shiva's horse Katas (allusion to Ketaksha? Unicorn?) | The name "Sati" probably is derived from Sat or Satya; possibly a feminine version of Sat or Satya. ~ However, 'Shiva wandering about in the cosmos with Sati's lifeless body on his shoulders' - is very likely a description (in the style of story-telling) of some cosmic event. ... Maybe, pieces of meteors and/or other celestial debris rained down on earth - which (gradually) resulted in the many "Shakti Peeths", as well as pools (sarasa-s or sarovaras). ~ Later translators probably took the allegorical cosmic events in the literal sense. [Goddess Parvati's consort (Shiva) is very likely the Shiva of the Bhasmasura story. | Durga (the invincible - Aparajita) means "fortress".] 

Daksha Prajapati's yagna and Sati's 'agni-pariksha': "Prajapati" is a 'title' indicative of a leader, king or chieftain. ~ Therefore, Sati's father - Daksha - may have been an influential personage. | Daksha Prajapati's yagna and Sati's 'agni-pariksha' = Daksha initiated some activity or process (karm-yagna) which turned out to be (his daughter) Dakshayani Sati's (proverbial) 'test by fire' instead, more than his own. Thus, Sati was (in a manner of speaking) vulcanized via the most trying of circumstances; it is indicative of her unmatched tenacity and resilience. [Dakshayani means: daughter of Daksha. The name "Sati" probably is derived from Sat or Satya; possibly a feminine version of Sat or Satya. | Sati and Parvati (popularly known as Devi Durga) is non-different. ~ Both are Rudra-Siva. Or rather the saguna (with qualities), savikaar (sentient), manifested (vyaktah), with earthly form (saakar) Trimurti (avatara) of 'Sarasvati-Lakshmi-Parvati'. | The consort (Shiva) is considered rather unworthy. And, from the Bhasmasura story, he seems to be a rather obtuse, irresponsible, impulsive and overgenerous person (who was also easily pliable and/or easily susceptible to flattery). | Bhasmasura (tr: Ash-Man) - a malevolent entity - performed penance/prayed to or propitiated Shiva = he flattered Shiva (the consort Shiva). The power to turn anyone into ash by merely touching their head could be interpreted as disproportionate and detrimental authority. Maybe, the consort Shiva - in a bout of (over)generosity and impulsiveness, or perhaps that was his nature - granted such powers/authority to Bhasmasura, a malevolent/negative entity. However, the wily Bhasmasura - having obtained the said powers/authority - wanted to test it on (the consort) Shiva himself... prompting the latter to run for dear life - straight to Sri Vishnu (Garbodakshayi Vishnu? Durga (Parvati) aka Kalika?) ~ He narrates his predicament and implores her to rescue him. Thereupon, realizing Shiva's folly and the threat Bhasmasura posed to humanity (as a result of the disproportionate/detrimental authority granted to him), Garbodakshayi Vishnu (as the ace diplomat and negotiator, Mohini-avatara) meets Bhasmasura... and confuses him sufficiently enough to touch his own head. ~ Thus, Bhasmasura turns into ashes. [Touch his own head = self-destruct; vinasha kaaley biparith buddhi?] Mohini-avatara: Tagore's Ayi Bhubanamanamohini - implying 'Mother' Earth or 'Mother' Nature - Vasundhara/Vasudha/Dharitri - Devi Sarasvati or Shyamsundara (Shyamalasundara) Krishna.] | In 'Heye Khaniker Atithi' Tagore says 'Ogo akoruun (wily one), ki mayaa (guile/brilliant manoeuvres) jano, milanchhaley biraha aano'. ~ The Mohini-avatara acquired the (metaphoric/allegoric) pot of 'ambrosia' (signifying influence, etc) from the malevolent entities ~ via diplomacy and ample use of wiles and guile, then returned it to the positive forces, thereby enabling the latter to regain their preeminence. Thus, the machinations of the malevolent or negative entities came to a naught. (~ The positive entities will of course have to perform their collaborative, diligent and tangible karm-yog with forethought - to regain that preeminence.) [Both these tales can well be allegorical cautionary tales, applicable to all eras/yugs - about the flipside of susceptibility to flattery, excessive and unthinking generosity, impulsive nature and/or actions, and so forth... and what these could lead to ~ self-inflicted and entirely avoidable troubles. | Alternatively: this story can also be explained through the 'Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram' imagery. Bhasmasura, a malevolent entity, was a source of misery to humankind. So, the Shiva (Sivam) aspect grants him certain powers/authority (sort of a stratagem), while the Vishnu aspect (Satyam - as the Mohini-avatar, implying Bhubanamanamohini, Dharitri) destroys him.]

Some legends also state that the very first "Shiva Ling" was in Katas. | The Shiva Ling is very likely the depiction of the Brhmaanda or Brahmaanda (the "Cosmic Egg"; Brh = to grow or to expand; aanda = egg) and "Garbhodaka Ocean" that lies at the bottom of the universe. [How and when the word "ling" came to be associated with "phallus" ~ my guess is as good as yours. Probably a result of intellectual decline or lack of scientific temper that brought about the decline of a once-preeminent civilization.] | According to our ancient texts, there are several Vishnu: Maha Vishnu (Karanodakshayi Vishnu - reclining on the 'causal ocean' or the Karanodak/Karana Ocean - originally a cloudlike darkness in one corner of the spiritual sky in 'Vaikuntha' - from which the material world (Material Nature or Manifested Nature) is created; is this a reference to 'dark energy' or invisible 'dark matter' - Brahm-jyotih or Primal Creative Energy (Adi Shakti? Kali?) ~ of which  all jiva-atma, etc is a part?), Garbodakshayi Vishnu (reclining on the 'ocean of Garbha') and Ksirodakshayi Vishnu (who reclines on the Shesh on Kshir Sagar). [Maha Visnu's 'expansion' is Garbodakshayi Vishnu. Garbodakshayi Vishnu's expansion is Ksirodakshayi Vishnu. Ksirodakshayi Vishnu is Param-atma - higher soul, great soul or motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe; Ksirodakshayi Vishnu lives in Svetadvipa - where there is an 'ocean' (samudra) of milk (kshira or kheer ~ Sindhu Sagara). Incidentally, the current kalpa is known as "Svhetavaraha Kalpa". (Svheta = white. Varaha = the great one-tusked boar; Varaha is the third avatara of the Dasavatara, and the Supreme Form of Sri Garbodakshayi Vishnu.)] | BG 10.28: || sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ || ~ "and of serpents I am Vāsuki" - could also be a reference to Sri Anantasayana Vishnu (also known as Ksirodakshayi Vishnu - reclining on Shesha or Sheshanaga/Śeṣanāga/Adisesha). | The other 'ocean' of Garbha is very likely a combination of cosmic dust, energy and gas, even gas hydrates formed under conditions of high pressures and low temperatures, and so on... and maybe, even a great amount of suction force. Its appearance is (probably) in the form of 'concentric circles or bands' ~ though none of it is visible to the unaided (human) eye (perhaps 'divya-drishti' is required). During "Prakritik Maha Pralaya" (i.e. when Material Nature or Manifested Nature is completely "dissolved" - signifying the cosmic phenomenon of "dissolution") - Material Nature or Manifested Nature 'dissolves' into this 'ocean of Garbha'. ~ Our ancients visualized this 'ocean of Garbha' as the endless serpent 'Adi-Sesha' or 'Ananta-Sesha'. [Ananta = infinity, endless, eternal. Sesha = zero, shunya.] | "Prakritik Maha Pralaya" (the cosmic phenomenon of "dissolution") occurs when 'Ananta' becomes 'Sesha', infinity becomes zero and Yog-maya (the ever changing and evolving [mayamayi or transient] Material Nature or Manifested Nature) becomes Yog-nidra (the big sleep - 'Sleeping Beauty' allusion?) Therefore, in a manner of speaking, it is said that when Adishesa 'uncoils', time (kaal, kaalah) moves forward and creation takes place. When Adisesha/ Śeṣanāga 'coils back', the universe ceases to exist. ("Shesha" in Sanskrit texts, especially those relating to mathematical calculation, also implies the "remainder" - that which remains when all else ceases to exist.) [Nazrul's "Bidrahi" (Change Maker, Yug Purush, Renaissance/Transformative Personage - link) is very interesting (it refers to the 'big sleep'). ... Rishi Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay's 'Ananda Math' is also very interesting. Tagore penned 'Aanandaloke Mangalaaloke' celebrating Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram.] | Vadavagni is a form of Agni (fire) - depicted as a mare that breathes fire. It is believed that it is the escape of this 'fire' (Vadavagni) from under the 'ocean' (very likely the 'ocean of Garbha'? Agni Teerth? Feluda's Gyanpeeth?), which will finally consume the current cycle of creation and prepare the Brhmaanda or Brahmaanda (the "Cosmic Egg") for the next cycle of creation. [Is this a reference to the earth or the whole of Manifested Cosmos?] | Vadavagni is (believed to be) located beneath the 'ocean' (possibly the 'ocean of Garbha') and is allegorically depicted with the face of a mare (Unicorn?). [Is 'Vadavagni' an allusion to another aspect of Garbodakshayi Vishnu - SarasvatI-Lakshmi-Parvati (Kalika) aka the Krishna-avatara?] Apparently, mists and clouds are formed due to the activity of Vadavagni (below the 'ocean' - the 'ocean of Garbha'). This also prevents the 'ocean' from consuming the Material Nature or Manifested Nature. ~ This probably means: Vadavagni (allegory for a tremendous force/energy and/or some kind of Cosmic Fire?) causes the (metaphoric) 'ocean water' to 'evaporate' and turn into 'mist' ~ thus preventing the 'ocean' from ever overflowing on to the Material Nature or Manifested Nature. ~ It is said that just before 'Prakritik Maha Pralaya' (cataclysmic events - the symbolic cosmic dance of "dissolution" - heralding the cosmic phenomenon of "dissolution"), Vadavagni will stop doing this, causing the 'ocean' to expand and submerge the Material Nature or Manifested Nature. ~ At this time, Vadavagni will burst forth as (in the form of) 'volcanoes' from under the 'ocean' and escape (i.e. the cosmic fire of dissolution will [gradually] consume the whole of Material Nature or Manifested Nature). BG 11.32: śrī-bhagavān uvāca (The Blessed Lord said): || kālo 'smi loka-kṣaya-kṛt pravṛddho || ~ "Now I am Time (kālo 'smi), the destroyer of all." | Alternatively: "Time I am, the shatterer of worlds." ~ He is referring to the cosmic phenomenon of "dissolution" or Prakritic Maha Pralaya. [All this (perhaps) should also help us understand what Dvarka/Dvaravati submerged below the ocean is indicative of.]

[Note: Apparently, Krishna engaged 'Vishvakarmaa' to build the city of Dvarka, however, Visvakarma indicated that the task could be accomplished only if Samudradeva, the lord of the sea, provided some land. Thereafter Sri Krishna worshipped Samudradeva, who was pleased and gave them land measuring 12 yojanas, following which Visvakarma built Dvaraka, a city in gold (possibly indicative of a 'prosperous city'). | 'Vishvakarma' could be a reference to the best architect of that era. Perhaps, 'Vishvakarma' was a 'title' or honorific bestowed on the best architect in earlier eras/yug. While 'Samudradev' could be a reference to someone adept at building structures on seas (samudra). Alternatively, the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being is also known as Vishvakarma: Creator of the World. 'Samudradev' could be a reference to Ksirodakshayi Vishnu (who reclines on the Shesh on Kshir Sagar). The A. Sea was earlier known as Sindhu Sagar (very likely the kshira sagar of the samudra-manthan or kshira-sagar-manthan ('churning' of the ocean of milk) stories; kshira = milk). Garbodakshayi Vishnu's expansion is Ksirodakshayi Vishnu. So one 'praying' to the other is self-explanatory. BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || ~ "and of bodies of water I am the ocean." | The Rig Veda refers to the SarasvatI as a mighty river flowing from the mountains to the sea (giribhyah asamudrat). The abundance and tremendous force of its water had an enchanting impact on the minds of the poets who repeatedly described it as: 'abounding in waters' - maho-arnah; 'flowing rapidly' - pra-sasre; 'moving faultlessly' - akuvari; 'possessing unlimited strength' - yasyah amah ananto; 'roaring' - charati roruvat, and 'fierce' - ghora. ~ Thus, the realistic picture in the Rig Veda is that of a mighty and highly glorified river named SarasvatI descending from the Himalayas (manifestation, personification or embodiment of the Himalayas - Himalaya-putri?) ... The river disappeared at a place called Vinasana (literally 'disappearance'), though many believe it still flows below the ground. | The River SarasvatI very likely is an allegoric river. sarasam asmi sagarah ~ can also mean: the SarasvatI and the Sindhu are one, inseparable. That the waters of the two 'rivers' joined together and in their immensity 'flowed' as one single river into the sea. Where is 'Agni Teerth'? Where is Mt Meru?]

Sri Ram, the Krishna-avatar and the Buddh-avatar is part of BG 4.7 || yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham || ~ depending on the challenges of the time (especially when adharma gains the upper hand). The focus/objective is to revive/rejuvenate dharma (dharma-samsthapanarthaya) - i.e. to bring about a corrective change of course. | The 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' (of Rishi Bankim's 'Ananda Math') also refers to sthula (gross) and sukshma (subtle). [The gross body is sthula sharira, the subtle or astral body is sukshma sharira. To comprehend an avatar and the full significance of their karm - one has to consider both the aspects. In their gross/physical body they set examples, bring forth actions (perhaps even from others, since the arrival of the avatar accelerate karmas - for the corrective course of action to materialise) and/or to bring out latent/undiscussed/ignored aspects to the forefront. It depends on the impediments or challenges of the time. This is because an avatar is also Cosmic Teacher (guru), and thus teaches through acharan (words and actions) - the mark of a true guru. | However, since an avatar is not quite human (despite appearance) like the rest of humankind, does an avatar have to make an effort to appear human-like?]

Ketaksha or Katas is also believed to have been Ayudhya. (Ayudhya probably became Ayodhya due to changing phonetics.) | Ayudhya = invincible, unconquerable or eternal. "Ayudhya" comes from the root word "yudh" meaning "not to be fought". | There is an Ayutha and Dvaravati in Thailand too. ~ Ancient Ayutha or Ayutthaya - the former capital of Thailand - apparently rose from the earlier, nearby kingdoms of Lavo and Suphannaphoom (Suvarnabhumi). The seaport city of Ayothaya is Ayothaya Si Raam Thep Nakhon - the Angelic City of Sri Rama. ~ The new city was known as Ayothaya, or Krung Thep Dvaravadi Si Ayothaya. Later it became widely known as Ayutthaya, the Invincible City. ~ It is believed that this city is associated with the Thai national epic Ramakien, which is a southeastern version of the Ramayana ('The Exertions of Sri Ram'). | Dvaravati was part of the Mon kingdom - and refers to both a culture and a conglomerate of ancient city-states or principalities in the lower plain (riverine region) of the Chao Phraya river. | The term Dvaravati derives from coins which were inscribed in Sanskrit with śrī dvāravatī. The Sanskrit word dvāravatī means "she with many gates" (from dvar "door gate"). Its name is probably derived from the city of Dvāraka (Dvaraka) in ancient India.

The seven greatest capital cities of the Rama Empire/civilization were known in classical texts as 'The Seven Rishi Cities'. Rishi (Sanskrit: ṛṣI) signifies enlightenment, wisdom and knowledge; it was also an honorific for highly learned and knowledgeable persons. ... Maybe, these Seven Rishi Cities were knowledge hubs or thinking hub. Priest-Kings (meaning: "Great Teachers" or "Masters") who governed the cities were essentially Brahmana-statesmen. [Brahmana implies the light of wisdom or the wisdom of knowledge - enlightened persons; Brahmana can also be interpreted as sensible and enlightened persons with a broader worldview or outlook. Today they are generally called "Priest-Kings".] They were apparently persons whose mental powers/intellect were of a degree that would seem incredible to most moderns. (Maybe even Chanakya can be called a Brahmana-statesman or "Purohith".) | Priest is probably the anglicized version of Purohith. "Pur" or "pura" indicates place/city as well as fort. Hith = for the benefit of, or for the good of. Therefore, a Purohith was someone who possessed a holistic worldview i.e. thought of the greater good. [It did not indicate rituals, that probably came about later.]


Tibet is 'Tripishtaka' or 'Trivistaka' in Sanskrit, meaning: the land of the Devas (an ancient clan or people) to the north of the Himalayas. ~ So, was Tibet (Tripishtaka or 'Trivistaka) part of the ancient Himalayan kingdom. | Deva = the ancient Deva people inhabiting areas that was considered as 'paradise on earth'. ~ Perhaps the upper Indus region was known to Mesopotamia as Dilmun ('the land of paradise' to the Mesopotamians). The paradise story matches with the Indus culture, it being most modern nation on Earth at the time. Also, wide swathes of the ancient Himalaya kingdom may have been known as 'paradise on earth' due to its scenic beauty. The ancient Himalaya kingdom probably consisted of wide swathes of land. Even Himachal Pradesh is 'Devabhoomi' - abode of the Deva people. | The Indus (River Sindhu), on the other hand, issues from a lion's mouth. Hence this river is called Sinh ka bab ~ the lion's gate or mouth. ~ The once-mighty River Indus, it is said, originates from the mouth of a lion (Senge Khabab or "Lion's Mouth") - a perennial spring (sarasa) - in Tibet. Thus, it is also called Sengge Tsangpo or 'Lion River'. This river is a common lifeline, and symbolically binds the people of more than one nation. Few rivers in the world flow through as stunning a landscape as the Sindhu (River Indus). It flows through plains, villages, hamlets and towns, as well as by valleys, gorges and peaks of countless hues. [Sindhu is Sanskrit for the River Indus. "Sindhu" means river, stream or ocean in Sanskrit.] BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || ~ "and of bodies of water I am the ocean." It is a reference to the mighty River Indus, perhaps the largest of all rivers in the world after the Nile. [Sanskrit: Nilah or Neel.] Sarasam also indicates saras - meaning: gracefully flowing. Saras or Sarasa means spring, pool or fountain. Saras or Sarasa can also indicate SarasvatI. Feluda's Gyanpeeth and Dhakuria Lake. [The SarasvatI is an important river goddess in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit name means, "having many pools" (pushkara and ketaksha are two of those pools). The Sanskrit name for the River Indus is Sindhu. "Sindhu" means river, stream or ocean in Sanskrit.] ~ "Hindu" is simply the variant of Sindhu. Thanks to the ancient Persians, Sapta-Sindhu (Vedic Sapta Sindhavaḥ) became Hapta-Handu (in old Persian 'S' becomes 'Ha') - finally culminating in the word "Hindu". The ancient Persians (due to a lack of phonetics in their language) called the people living to the east of the river Sindhu as HAndu (which later became Hindu). "Persia" probably evolved from "Parshva" (meaning: 'next door', 'neighbouring' or 'nearby'). ~ Did the ancient Indus people (the Rig Vedic people) call the people of the first/neighbouring port by the Sanskrit word "Parshva"?

Rishabha is one of the 24 avatars. | Bhagavan Rishabhdev, first Jain Tirthankara Rshabha (also known as Adinath), an enlightened soul, is regarded as an incarnation of Sri Vishnu. Also, how did the name Parshvanath come about? Did Sri Parshvanath have anything to do with ancient Persia? [The symbol of Adinath is a Bull (Rshabha - derived from Vṛṣabha, the Great Bull), hence he is also known as Rshabha Dev.]

Dharma is generally symbolized in Sanaatan Dharmic thought by the bull, Vrisha or Vrishabha. ... However, could one of the Indus Yogi seals (known as the Pasupati Seal) also represent the *Rishabha-avatar? ~ Rishabha or Rshabha - derived from Vṛṣabha or Vrishabha, the great bull. The Cosmic Being is also known as Vrishaakritih (embodiment or personification of Dharma - sattvic or noble traits/qualities) or Vrishaparvaa and Dharmadhyaksha - Lord of Dharma. Thus the illustrious *God of gods (Mahaadeva or deveshaH) is called Vṛṣabha (Vrishabha - the Great Bull). | The Zebu Bull or Brahma Bull imagery and motif depicted on the Indus seals could be the seal or insignia of the Vrishni. [Vasudev Krishna, the Lord of Mathura and Dvarka, is also known as Varshneya.] It could be that 'Gokul' was part of ancient Persia. [Yamuna could be an allegory/metaphor for ancient Persia.] Krishna was a Shurasena Yadu (Megasthenes' Sourasenoi). The Sarakenoi or Saraceni (late Latin Saracēnus or late Greek Sarakēnos) could actually be the Shuracena Yadus, apart from the Vrishnis. And so, Mathura (Megasthenes' Methora) too was very likely a part of Magadha - the one on the western parts of ancient India. | *God of gods: aadidevah (the first devah; aadi = foremost, primal); mahaadevah (the great devah); deveshaH (the Lord of all devas) and adhaataa (above whom there is no other).


Pradosh Chandra Mitra (Mitter) aka Felu-da. | 'Felu' is perhaps derived from phal or fal (fruit or outcome of one's exertions or endeavours).

BG 2.47: || karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te sańgo 'stv akarmaṇi || ~ "One should be focussed on the action (i.e. timely, tangible, effective and sustained karm-yog with forethought, shunning ego, vainglory etc) only, never with its fruits (outcome, phal); so let not the fruits of action be thy motive, nor be thou to inaction (apathy, indifference) attached." [In other words: Do your karma (to the best of your ability) and leave the rest to a Higher power or the forces of the universe. Also: cultivate a positive outlook (morale), never give up.]

Felu-da is Pradosh Chandra Mitra or Pradosh C. Mitter. (Mitra anglicized to Mitter). Mitra means: friend, or one who brings about mayitri. [The eternal divine/cosmic being is suhrit: Friend of all creatures.] | Pradosh is nightfall or twilight. ~ Pradosha vrata is a vrata for the worship of Shiva (Rudra) and Parvati. The Pradosha worship is done in the evening twilight or sandhya kaalah on the Trayodashi of both lunar fortnights (Shukla and Krishna Paksha). *These are the 13th tithi, or lunar days, from the New Moon (Amavasya) and Full Moon (Poornima). Shiva (Rudra), Parvati, Ganesha, Skanda and Nandi (the great bull) are worshipped. [Maha Pradhosh is the Pradosha that falls before Maha Sivaratri in the month of Maagha. | The Trimurti of 'Parvati-Sarasvati-Lakshmi' is non-different from Sri Ganesha.] | Sri Ganesha represents a set of qualities (best of qualities that humans can imbibe to overcome impediments), and is very likely a reference to the most intelligent, perceptive and wise person. Sri Ganesh represents: great retention power or vast intelligence (as symbolized by the elephant head and elephant's memory). The elephant-head: represents calm disposition, intelligence, perceptiveness, knowledge and wisdom. The small eyes = concentration. The small mouth and the bent trunk (Vakra-Tunndda) = less noise, more efficiency (opposite of 'empty vessels makes the most noise'). The bent trunk indicates: one who is not given to boasting or talking unnecessarily; in other words: one who is not ignorant or vainglorious. The big elephant ears = great listening ability ('listening', and not merely 'hearing') Vignesh or Vighna-Vinashak = the remover of obstacles or impediments - in the path of good deeds. Gana = humankind; esha = the best of (implying the best of traits, qualities, aspects.]

*Tagore, an Indian, was also the first Asian and the first non-European to win a Nobel Prize - when he was declared winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize (in Literature) and given the award in December of the same year. [13 is Tryodashi, in Sanaatan Dharmic thought Tryodashi is considered very lucky. | Topse is introduced as a teenager of 13 in 'Feludar Goyendagiri'. Topse is Feluda's 'satellite' ~ allusion to the moon on the forehead of Rudra? Tagore's 'Nandanerii Nandini go chandralekhaye chnaoya'?]


BG 10.26: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "among trees, I am the Peepal" (ashvattha)

The peepal tree (the Bodhi tree, the 'tree of enlightenment') or the transpersonal World Tree is the personification of Sri Vishnu/Keshav/Narayan/Hari. The Bodhi tree, the Tree of Enlightenment, is also the symbol of Sri Gautam Buddh's message in general (since he had overcome his human boundaries and become one with the world spirit.) The holy fig tree therefore, holds a very important place in Indian civilization (be it with respect to faith, medicinal and social point of views), and hence is worthy of worship. It is the tree of eternal life. The ashvattha symbolizes the continuity of life because the tree itself lives and grows for hundreds of years. The heart-shaped leaves on long, thin stems shimmer easily in a light breeze. This sacred tree stands for wisdom, knowledge, enlightenment, happiness, prosperity, peace, longevity and good luck. Every peepal tree is a reservoir of oxygen. People who stay near it have a plentiful supply of oxygen. This majestic tree gives ample shade to humans and animals alike. It is also home to a lot of birds and insects. The holy fig tree has medicinal properties as well.

Ashvatha literally means, "Where horses stood" (ashva + tha). [Is horse or ashva a reference to Unicorn?] In Sanskrit, this tree is known as Ashvattha, Bodhivriksha and Plaksha. This tree represents the entire cosmos: 'Shva' in Sanskrit means tomorrow, 'a' indicates negation, and 'tha' means one that stands or remains. Hence, Ashvatha can indicate: "One which does not remain the same tomorrow" (lack of stasis/stagnation), or the universe itself. The Ashvatha tree is quite remarkable because it grows both upwards as well as vice versa. The branches themselves morph into roots, so even if the original tree decays and perishes, its branches underneath are young and continue to enclose the parent. This eternal life of the Peepal tree has inspired many Indian philosophers; this tree has its own symbolic meaning of enlightenment and peace... all of which has enriched Sanaatan Dharma. In the Upanishads, the fruit of the peepal is thus used as an example to explain the difference between the body and the soul. The body (the outer shell or mortal coil) is like the fruit which, being outside, feels and enjoys things, while the soul (jiva-atma) is like the seed, which is inside and therefore witnesses things. Tree of Roots above; branches below; this Ashvattha is reputed to be imperishable; whose leaves are the Vedas; One who knows this is a knower of all the vedas. [Kathopanishad and the Srimad Bhagavad Gita.]

~ And it was beneath this very tree that Sri Krishna was resting when the vyadh/hunter (Jara) unknowingly hit him with his arrow (mistaking him for a deer). On finding out (who he has hit), he begs and pleads to be forgiven. But Krishna only smiles, blesses him and departs, while Jara continues to grieve over the empty shell (the discarded outer coil). The avatara reverts to Param-atma.


|| Sri Krishna Govind Hare Murare, Heye Nath Narayan, Vasudeva, Tribhuvan ke Swami, Sakha Hamare, Heye Nath Narayan Vasudeva || | Hare = dispeller [Haran] of Miseries/Difficulties (Sankat) ~ a Pathfinder; Murare = metaphor for sankat (difficulties, miseries). Govind = the (allegorical/metaphoric) shepherd. [Humankind is the metaphoric 'cow'.] Vasudeva = Deity/deva of the Earth (Vasundhara). Tribhuvan ke Swami = Lord of the three worlds. Narayan = benefactor of humankind/human society/civilization; one who helps humankind to tide over difficulties. [maargah (the path); neyah (the guide).] Sakha hamare = eternal friend, perennial guide and well-wisher of humanity. Nath = Cosmic Ruler/Monarch/Guardian.] BG 10.27: || narāṇāḿ ca narādhipam || ~ "and among humans I am the monarch" (Cakravartin).

Krishna is Lohitah or Rohit - pale-red in complexion. Pale-red = paTalaH in Sanskrit. Putra = embodiment, personification or manifestation. ~ Lotus is one of the few flowers that have fascinated humankind since time immemorial, with its exotic beauty. Lotus also inspires the human mind to achieve perfection (inner perfection/self realisation) even in adversities. It is always possible to overcome the tribulations of life to attain fulfillment and perfection (inner perfection: lack of ego, delusion, etc; adherence to dharma - sattvic or noble traits/qualities). [Whosoever achieves self-realization is a pure or perfect person (inner perfection - one who is truly enlightened; in other words: one who is non-deluded (dhirah or of steady mind).] ~ The lotus flower signifies a 'way of life' based on dharma (strong dharmic principles and virtues - for the greater good), purity (inner perfection - sattvic or noble traits/qualities), dignity, wisdom and harmony. | The pale-red lotus is the Supreme Lotus; this lotus is highly revered and signifies the highest deity. Krishna thus embodies or personifies the highest lotus (paTalaH-putra) [Putra = embodiment, personification or manifestation. PaTalaH-putra = embodiment, personification or manifestation of the Highest or Supreme Lotus.] In other words: the Krishna-avatar is the manifestation of the pale-red lotus ~ the Highest Lotus or Supreme Lotus signifying the highest deity. This should explain what PaTalaH Bhairava means. Goddess Lakshmi is also associated with the pale-red lotus. [The Krishna-avatar is also believed to have built the city of Pataliputra - several generations before the reign of Chandragupta Maurya. This Pataliputra would very likely be part of the Magadha on the western reigns of ancient India.] | A pale-red lotus denotes the state of a person's mind; a full-bloomed pale-red lotus means: Supreme or highest Enlightenment or the stage where nirvana is attained (i.e. the state of a Buddha). ~ The lotus grows elegantly out of the muddy waters, unaffected and untouched by the mud, so it is considered supreme among all flowers, and is often compared to a person with strong virtues (including selflessness) and dharmic principles. | The Buddha (Buddha Shakyamuni/Gautam Buddh) is shown seated on a pale-red lotus. A full-bloomed pale-red lotus signifies enlightenment or the stage where nirvana is attained.] | In Sanskrit, Krishna is written as: Krsna (we are familiar with the numerous painting/iconography). Buddha means: the Enlightened One. [Our ancient texts, etc contain numerous puzzles/riddles. However, the rise of Brahminical faith perhaps also brought with it a concerted attempt to 'masculinize' the eternal divine/cosmic being.]

Krishna is Hari-Krishna (haritaH or PalashaH means green in Sanskrit). Haritah implies association with nature. ~ We say, 'Mother' Earth or 'Mother' Nature (Dharitri Mata) implying feminine. ['Mother' or Mataram is a respectful honorific.]

~ The rare blue lotus is termed pushkara. It is also known as krishna kamal - signifying the 'perfection of wisdom' - wisdom of knowledge (brought about by the complete 'awakening' of the kundalini energy). [Blue Lotus signifies wisdom and knowledge, and stands for the victory over the senses. It defines a person's control over his or her mind and consciousness, to let go of materialistic aspirations in life and rise to a selfless soul. [The Valmiki imagery - 'one who sits in an anthill'.] | The blue lotus flower is not fully open, the bud is closed towards the centre, which is never revealed. This state of the flower (the partially-opened bud) is indicative that one should not stop attaining knowledge and wisdom in life. ~ It is associated with the Bodhisattva of wisdom, known as Manjushri (Buddha Manjushri - the Wisdom Buddha - the embodiment of the omniscient wisdom of all enlightened beings), and Prajnaparamita, the one who signifies the 'perfection of wisdom'.

In 'Ketechhe Akela' Tagore says, 'Shhob path eshey miley gyalo shheshey tomaarii duu-khani nayone...' ~ It could be a reference to Rudraksha or eye of Rudra. Sanskrit: rudrākşa = rudra and akşa = eye. Does it indicate Pushkara and Ketaksha and/or Manipura? [Rudraksha and Virupaksha are non-different. Virupaksha = with oblique eyes. Lokkhi-tyara also means: with oblique eyes. Lokkhi = Lakshmi.] | Vaidyanatha or Vasudev Dhanvantari (the Supreme Druid) = a problem solver, a change maker, solution-provider or path-finder. ~ However, the eyes of Rudra could also be a reference to two pools (sarasa) - one at Pushkara in Rajasthan and the other Ketaksha - in the Salt Range. ~ The SarasvatI is an important river goddess in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit name means, "having many pools".


[Puruṣa-uttama (avatara or Para-Brahmn) means: greatest of all beings. Purusha (Sanskrit: Puruṣa) or Brahmn = the unmanifested Param-atma - the higher power embedded in the fabric of the universe and responsible for its continuing existence and operation. | Sat/Satya = the Eternal (Ultimate/Primordial/Primeval) Truth; in other words: the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being - Brahmn or Purusha ~ the unmanifested (avyaktah), niraakar (without earthly form) Param-atma. Sundara is the manifested (vyaktah), saakar (with earthly form), saguna, savikaar (sentient and with qualities) Trimurti: 'Parvati-Sarasvati-Lakshmi' (Jagadambika-Mahasarasvati-Mahalakshmi) aka Mahakali aka the Krishna-avatara. Tagore penned 'Pratham Aadi Taba Shakti'. | Purusha does not mean male. Puruṣa can also mean: Primal Creative Energy viz., 'Brahm-jyotih' or Maha Vishnu (Karanodakshayi Vishnu - reclining on the 'causal ocean' or the Karanodak/Karana Ocean - originally a cloud-like darkness in one corner of the spiritual sky in 'Vaikuntha' - from which the material world [manifested nature] is created). Thus, Puruṣa or Brahm-jyotih can also be described as: the one Self-existent impersonal spirit/energy; the Divine Essence, from which all things emanate, by which they are sustained, and to which they return. ~ It is a reference to the impersonal (nirvikaar), nirguna (without qualities), unmanifested (avyaktah - to earthly eyes), niraakar (without earthly form) Absolute OM or Absolute Brahmn (Maha Vishnu) - Comic Light, Light Divine or Divine Effulgence. ~ It is the light (divine effulgence or light divine) that impersonalists perceive in the Nirguna (impersonal, unmanifested - nirvikaar, avyaktah, Niraakar) mode of God. ~ All creation-related work is the work of Fire (i.e. Cosmic Fire, Cosmic Light - Brahmn-jyotih, Light Divine or Divine Effulgence - i.e. Primal Creative Energy ~ euphemistically known as Maha Vishnu - the Supreme Creator.) ~ The impersonal (nirvikaar) Absolute Brahmn (Absolute OM or Sri Maha Vishnu) is thus revered as the Supreme Creator (Srashtaa). | The Cosmic Trimurti of 'Shiva-Brahma-Vishnu' is indicative of the three aspects of the cosmic phenomenon of Creation, Maintenance/Preservation and Dissolution. ~ This Trimurti is impersonal (nirvikaar), nirguna (without qualities), unmanifested (avyaktah), and niraakar (without earthly form).

Rudra (as 'Neelkanth' - the allegorical 'blue-throated one') accepts the 'toxic aspects' or negativism resulting out of 'societal manthan/churn' - for the good of humanity/humankind ~ to allow it to evolve, so that a better and vibrant society emerges. | Negativism (referred to as halahala or kaalkoot) = the metaphoric 'toxic aspects' (such as: confusion, ignorance, delusion, illusion, hopelessness, perfunctoryness, retrogressiveness, vanity, hubris, bile, pettiness, inertia, apathy or indifference, narrow-mindedness, triviality, selfish concerns etc) which - if allowed to accumulate - would lead to stagnation and societal degeneration (i.e. degeneration or decline in [shared] civilisational values and ideals). ~ Rudra's actions thus helps to curb these negative aspects - thereby laying the foundations for a rejuvenated and vibrant society to emerge. ~ BG 10.34: || mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām || ~ "I am all-consuming time, and I am the generating principle/cause/energy of all that is yet to be." (~ Alternatively: "I am all-consuming time, and I am too the birth of all that shall come into being.")


BG 2.22 || vāsānsi jīrNāni yathā vihāya navāni grihNāti naro.aparāNi tathā śarīrāNi vihāya jīrNānyanyāni sanyāti navāni dehī || ~ "Just as a human being puts on new garments, casting off old and worn-out ones, the (human) soul (Jiva-atma or mere Self) similarly takes up residence within new material bodies, giving up the old and infirm ones."

... Thus, no two people are alike. Even identical twins are not alike in character traits, etc. Since their souls (jiva-atma or mere Self) are different ~ even though they may be spitting images of each other, physically.

All creation-related work is the work of Fire (i.e. Cosmic Fire, Cosmic Light - Brahm-jyotih, Light Divine or Divine Effulgence, in other words: Primal Creative Energy or Sri Maha Vishnu.) ~ The impersonal Absolute Brahmn (Absolute OM or Sri Maha Vishnu) is thus revered as the Supreme Creator (Srashtaa). ... The individual soul (jiva-atma or mere Self) is part of the impersonal (nirvikaar), nirguna (without qualities), unmanifested (avyaktah), and niraakar (without earthly form) Brahmn ~ the Absolute OM or Absolute Brahmn ('Brahm-jyotih': Primal Creative Energy, Divine Effulgence or Cosmic Light). In other words: Sri Maha Vishnu. [Is Sri Maha Vishnu a reference to 'dark energy' or invisible 'dark matter'?] | The impersonal Absolute OM or Absolute Brahmn is defined as the one self-existent impersonal spirit (energy) - the Divine Essence, from which all things emanate, by which they are sustained, and to which they return. | Primal Creative Energy can be called Purusha implying Cosmic Energy or Brahm-jyotih. [Spirit or soul is energy. It has no earthly form, shape or gender. ~ Thus, the individual soul (jiva-atma or mere Self) too is energy; it has no earthly form or gender; only the outer shell (material body) differs.]

And so, a 'female soul' cannot be contained within a male material body, nor a 'male soul' be contained within a female material body. ~ Our ancients were clear about three kinds of humans. The third type was known as 'tritiya prakriti' (an umbrella term). | "Manavantara" = 'manav' (indicating humankind or the human species) and "antara" (time gap). So, does it mean that following a certain duration (centuries, millenniums and/or yugas, perhaps) a new kind of human-species is introduced on earth? ~ For example, Treta saw humans born due to advanced IVF therapy. While in Dvapar there was the advent of laboratory-born (unnatural, genetically engineered or cloned) humans - euphemistically known as 'virgin-birth' or 'fire-born' i.e. whose gestation happened minus any human aspect - in pitcher-shaped incubators, which acted as the surrogate womb. ~ There are small-sized humans (pygmies or vamanas) and the 'tritiya prakriti'. Besides, the human-species differ in appearance, etc.

BG 2.17: || avinasi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam vinasam avyayasyasya na kascit kartum arhati || ~ "But know that which pervades the entire body is indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul (jiva-atma) - individual soul or mere Self."

BG 2.18: || antavanta ime deha nityasyoktah saririnah || ~ "Only the material body (outer shell) of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity (jiva-atma) is subject to destruction." ~ While the jiva-atma only transmigrates from one body to another body:

BG 2.20: || Na jãyate mriyate vã kadãchinnãyam bhootvã bhavitã vã na bhooyaha ajo nityaha shãshvato'yam purãno na hanyate hanyamãne shareere || ~ "The individual soul (jiva-atma) never takes birth and never perishes at any time nor does it come into being again when the body is created. The individual soul (jiva-atma) is birthless, eternal, imperishable and timeless and is never destroyed even when the material body (outer shell) is destroyed (perishes)."

BG 10.23: || nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ na cainaṃ kledayantyāpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ || "Weapons cleave It not, fire burns It not, water wets It not, wind dries It not. This Self (jiva-atma or mere Self) cannot be cut, not burnt, nor get wet, nor dried up. It is eternal, all pervading, stable, immovable and ancient. This [Self] is said to be un-manifested, unfathomable and unchangeable." | Krishna describes (to Arjun) the human soul (the mere Self or jiva-atma) as something that cannot be cut by weapons, cannot be burnt by fire, cannot be drowned in water, cannot be blown/dried by the wind. [The Param-atma is also It. Atma is energy. It has no earthly form, shape or gender. The manifestation of the Param-atma is She.]

~ The "First Law of Thermodynamics" (Conservation) states that energy is always conserved; it cannot be created or destroyed. In essence, energy can be converted from one form into another. ~ 'Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to another.' 

~ Physics in the Bhagavad-Gita! [No wonder Swami Vivekananda believed that Vedic science will get a more surer footing in collaboration with the West. He also met with many of the well-known scientists of the time. | Knowledge is universal; it has no narrow connotations. Politicization or religiofication of knowledge is myopic, self-defeating.]

BG 10.23: || nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ na cainaṃ kledayantyāpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ || [Alternatively: Krishna may be saying: I (implying the metaphysical aspect - Param-atma) am at a place where no weaponry can touch me, fire cannot touch me, water cannot swallow me, wind cannot touch me.]


On a side note: The original manuscripts of our ancient texts (including Chanakya's works) are lost in the mists of time. [Besides, tho' Chanakya and Kautilya may have been the same person, Vishnugupt probably was a redactor of Chanakya's works.] ~ Manuscripts have a limited shelf life, usually about a few hundred years, and so, have to be copied. Sometimes they require translation or transliteration, i.e. they have to be transcribed and edited. ~ With the passage of centuries there is a change in phonetics, language(s), worldview, a change in the meanings and connotations of words and phrases, and so on. Also, the cultural and social milieu does not remain the same. Therefore, the later translators probably leave their mark. ~ It is their understanding and perspective that finds its way into the narrative and commentaries. Thus, more often than not the manuscripts and interpretations are more likely a reflection of a specific era. ~ The decline of the Gupta era brought with it a lot of changes, especially the stratification of society - based on various aspects, including on gender lines, an intellectual decline, a lack of scientific temper, one-upmanship, so on and so forth. The manuscripts that exist... belong to this period. So, mistranslation and/or misinterpretation of the texts are a possibility. [~ Remixed songs are not the same, movie remakes - after only a few years - are vastly different. While our ancient texts have had a multitude of retelling and endured the passage of millenniums. ~ Paintings, iconography, poetry, verses, stage-plays, idioms, phraseology et al too are more likely the product of a specific era and (thus) influenced by the prevailing social milieu. | Sita does not come across as a grovelling shriveling figure; she was very much part of the effort to bring about a positive change in perception/mindset. Neither does Draupadi come across as oppressed. Rather, the current interpretations of the epics do not talk about the advanced scientific and technological aspects (including cloning and genetically engineered humans), apart from polyandry. [Polygamy, polyandry and Gandharva-Vivaha existed simultaneously - in the ancient world. (Gandharva-Vivaha: a short-term union lasting for a few hours or a few days - essentially for pleasure or to beget progeny; no rituals were required, though the consent of the female was essential.) The current interpretations (very likely) reflect and/or are influenced by the socio-cultural milieu that came about after the decline of the Gupta era... and the subsequent rise of what is now known as Brahminical faith.] | Maybe, the final avatar (manifestation) can be the source of the most authentic information or understanding of the previous avatars. 

The Krishna-avatar (a Purna Avatara, not empowered entity) - as a woman - brings in several new dimensions and connotations (socio-political aspects, familial aspects) to the Mahabharata ('The Great History of the Bharatas' - indicative of the Puruvansh or the Bharatas ~ descendents of Raja Yayati's youngest-born Puru.) | The Yuga-avatara - as a woman, the Yug Purush (Change Maker; renaissance/transformative personage or epoch-making avatara) - as a woman. Given that perhaps after the decline of the Gupta era and the subsequent rise of what is now known as 'Brahminical faith' saw the gradual decline in scientific temper and stratification of society based on various aspects, including on gender lines. And, perhaps, an effort was made to 'masculinize' the avatara (Param-atama in earthly form) as well as the Param-atma Itself (e.g. the 'Shiva Ling' equated to phallus, retrogressive idioms and connotations coming about involving feminine symbolism, such as bangles, although the Krishna-avatar would have worn it, implying that Devi Lakshmi, Bhudevi, Devi Durga, and Goddess Kalika too would have worn it.] | Given that the return of the Krishna-avatara as the Kalkih-avatar (the 10th Vishnu - Kalkih-Maitreya or Kalika) - a 'Sampoorna-avatar' (a total, complete, all-encompassing avatar - an unprecedented avatara) ~ this too has transformative/epoch-making connotations (paradigm shift). It perhaps indicates a gradual blurring of various schisms and differences, and a movement towards 'unity of god'. | It is not about "respecting" women (or even "respecting" men, for that matter), rather it is about assorted regressive connotations, idioms, symbolism et al that has gradually seeped into the psychology of people and thereby affected the social fabric, attitudes, perceptions, conditioning, thought process and civilisational values and ideals. [After all, social conditioning and civilisational values impact (and therefore define) a society and by extension a civilisation.]


Devi Sarasvati is said to have invented Sanskrit, known as the mother of all languages, of scriptures and scholarship. She is also revered as the mother of the Vedas and as the mother of the Sindhu-Sarasvati Civilization or "Aryavarsha" (~ abode of the Arya people; land of the noble ones; Arya = noble, noble-natured or people who followed a pattern of life based on [shared] noble values and ideals. Varsha = continent, in Sanskrit). | When Sanskrit (saṃskṛta, "refined") progressively gained a higher cultural cachet (i.e. became the language of the "elite"), it was used to write 'classic' literature. Between Sanskrit and its modern derivatives lie a group of languages known as the Prakrits - the vernacular languages of ancient times (and very likely derived from Sanskrit). Prakrits were originally seen as "lower" forms of language (used by the common people). [The term (Prakrit) is probably derived from prakṛti - implying 'Mother' Nature or 'Mother' Earth ~ Devi SarasvatI in earthly form.] When there was an effort to appropriate knowledge by monopolizing Sanskrit (and thereby stratify society) - the Buddh-avatar (the 9th Vishnu) arrived. Gautam Buddha and Mahavira spoke Magadhi and Ardhmagadhi to reach out to the masses. Later, Jainism adopted it for Jain canon of scriptures. [Some scholars consider Pali as a form of Prakrit.] The earliest extant usage of Prakrit is the corpus of inscriptions of Emperor Asoka (r. 268-232 BCE). Besides this, Prakrit appears in literature in the form of Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhists, Prakrit canon of the Jains, Prakrit grammars and in lyrics, plays and epics of the times.

~ The hamsa (swan) is supposed to possess the ability to separate the water from the cream (in milk). The hamsa's ability to separate milk and water symbolizes the need to intellectually discriminate or differentiate between positive (enduring/durable/essential) aspects and negative (evanescent/ephemeral/trivial) aspects. E.g: The English language, in a generic sense, was the (metaphoric or proverbial) 'amrit' that arose out of a (symbolic) 'manthan' - colonization. Today this language is a link language - globally. English has emerged as the global language, the language of opportunities. Therefore, deficiency in this language will hold back a nation's progress. Tagore said: "We must recognize that it is providential that the West has come to India. And yet some one must show the East to the West, and convince the West that the East has her contribution to make to the history of civilization."

Though critical of the excesses and exploitation of colonial rule, he did not reject western civilization per se. "[...] I am not for thrusting off Western civilization and becoming segregated in our independence." He recognized the importance of what India could learn - from other nations/cultures/peoples - to/for her own benefit and progress. "If Providence wants England to be the channel of that communication, of that deeper association, I am willing to accept it with all humility. I have great faith in human nature, and I think the West will find its true mission." He also believed that the responsibility of a great future must be "untrammelled by the grasping miserliness of a past." Tagore's vision was to take on a more holistic attitude towards understanding the dynamic spirit of his time (and beyond). He also felt that the West should be capable of "imparting to the East what is best in herself, and of accepting in a right spirit the wisdom that the East has stored for centuries." ~ This is synergy creation at its best. It is (after all) western innovation and technology that has helped build India's economic infrastructure.


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