Sunday, June 1, 2014

Notes on leadership and the 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration'

Anyone in a leadership or decision-making role cannot be daunted by frowns or overwhelmed by smiles.

Sagacity, astuteness, foresight (critical thinking concerning long-term developments; debate and effort to create wider participation), lucidity/clear-eyedness, less cynicism, courage of convictions, work ethic, a broader vision, farsightedness, superior intelligence and wiles and guile are worthwhile qualities. | Actions were essentially a means to the broader vision - the larger goals/objectives, not personal glory or narrow considerations. To not merely talk but to also perform well-thought-out actions that are ground-breaking/pioneering and far-reaching in nature, to (thus) blaze a trail for others to follow - while soaking up the myriad barbs, and negativism - contributes toward a positive/constructive culture shift. It is not enough to be clear about what needed to be done, but also (most importantly) how to go about it. Even the wise Nasreddin Hodja advised that one must understand the nature of the beast before trying to tame it. This is timeless wisdom.

Greatness or mettle cannot be acquired, just as respect cannot be demanded. ~ To answer the call of duty despite myriad/spiraling challenges - is a test of mettle and calibre. Leadership cannot be acquired. Character cannot be acquired. A change of circumstances will not repair character flaws/weaknesses/deficiencies. Nishkam karm-yog is about shunning bluster, finger-pointing, ad hoc fixes, and selfish motives. It is about embracing toil wholeheartedly - for a larger cause, for the longer-term, for the future ~ to change well-entrenched mindsets, to bring about an organic cultural shift - to build a better, prosperous, progressive and vibrant society and nation. It is result-oriented action(karm) - for the larger/collective good.


 Ancient India had a long-lived civilization and culture. Collaboration is the key to success in any venture... and this explains the multifarious achievements of the ancient Indians. ... The economy was robust and trade flourished (both overland trade and sea-borne trade). | The quality of a society or civilization is in the hands of the people - it is the cumulative of their actions, conditioning, civic sense, mindset, values, attitude, thought processes, worldview and so forth ~ all of which influence and shape up the following generations... and thereby the social fabric. [Vocabulary, idioms, terminology, phraseology et al are indicators of a civilization.]

After the decline of the Gupta era - in the absence of a Cakravartin and 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration' - the years were marked by a lack of intellectual stimulation, gradual all-round stagnation... and (eventual) decay. A once great civilization lost her preeminence in all aspects and areas. Ancient India was no longer the seat of innovation and learning. Also, the feeling of oneness and internal unity (yog/sanyog/confluence) despite the myriad diversity (gradually and steadily) unraveled... all kinds of fissures, schisms and fault-lines came about. ~ In the absence of a nucleus (a shared roadmap/framework/architecture/result-oriented vision) and a cohesive, guiding and binding force/factor (a Cakravartin) - India (gradually and steadily) went adrift.

BG 10.27: || narāṇāḿ ca narādhipam || ~ "and among humans I am the monarch" (Cakravartin).

A Cakravartin was not merely an emperor ruling over his vast empire and basking in his own glory. ~ The Indian Cakravartin, on the contrary, was the anchor - a wise reassuring presence. [They were hard working and self-made - keertimaan.] A Cakravartin was the proverbial banyan tree beneath which all others sheltered.

~ BG 10.25: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "Of all trees I am the Peepal (asvatthah)" - fig tree (it can mean: banyan tree as well as the Peepal [aśvatthaḥ] or maybe both).

[For a Cakravartin-raja, dharma (dharmic principles, responsibilities) and karm-yog gained primacy. | The central concepts of dharma and karm-yog elude translation. It is performative. It has to (therefore) be experienced to be understood, since it lies beyond the domain of scriptural description or academic definition (terminologies, etc).]

[Pic: Ruins of Takshashila.] | The decline of Takshashila marked the decline in Indian education, thought and structure (direction, innovation, cohesion, etc). Fewer and fewer knowledge-seekers, students and travelers made the trip to India. [Ancient India was also a knowledge and thinking hub. Nalanda, Vikramshila, Somapura, Odantapura/Odantapuri, Jaggadala, etc were great seats of learning and centres of excellence, hallmark of ancient India's intellectual capital. Their names enchant the heart and 'rouses' our collective consciousness/minds. Will they rise from ruins?] 

A Chakravartin (Sanskrit: Cakravartin) is a 'wheel-turning' king - chakravarti-raja - a wise, non-extravagant and benevolent ruler, and an ideal king... for whom dharma (here, duties and responsibilities of a ruler) and karm-yog (tangible actions - for the larger/collective good, progress, etc) gained primacy. | A Cakravartin had the mettle, capacity and foresight to effectively deal with issues, take longer-term planning (a lucid plan of action), set strategic objectives and follow through with them; they also took tangible measures (since mere royal decrees could not have made a difference) for mindset change or for altering prejudices (e.g. Sri Ram). They knew how to go about the latter - for it to be durable and organic. Optimism, a sense of hope and prioritizing were a hallmark to their leadership - it was integral to the way they led. Rather, that is true leadership. A Cakravartin was (thus) a unifier, a cohesive/binding force/factor; someone with stature, someone who could take diversities (of all kinds) along. His empire was not a monolith, but rather a confederation (with maximum internal autonomy). There were kings and chieftains (janapadin) governing their own big and small regions/kingdoms/territories (janapadas and mahajanapadas), and yet, they all functioned under the all-embracing "umbrella" (and wise reassuring presence) of the Cakravartin. It was symbiotic. In a way, we can say, collectivism at its best... under the "wisdom tree" (guiding spirit - the Cakravartin). There was co-dependence, and therefore, co-operation and collaboration; this ensured peace; they progressed and prospered together. ~ As we know, ancient India was marked by all-round progress and preeminence.  

The 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration' was very much dynasty/empire-based - lead by an able and prominent member of a preeminent kula or clan (~ else it might have been 'too many cooks spoil the broth'); there have been exceptions though, when able persons from modest beginnings have risen and shone... and gone on to become progenitors of dynasties/empires. Maurya comes from 'Moriya' or 'Mura'. [Pali: Mora.] It is derived from 'Mor' meaning, peacock. With time Moriya/Mura became 'Maurya'. The Moriya were peacock-feather gatherers and Chandragupta's mother hailed from this clan. There is some indication that she was the daughter of a village headman, others indicate that she was the chief attendant (dasi) of the despotic Dhana Nanda (and that the latter sired Chandragupta); this makes Chandragupta a 'dasi-putra'. (Though some versions state that he belonged to a minor clan - the Moriya or Mura, and that his father was the chief of a forest area called Pippatavana/Pippalivana.) It is also believed that the Mura/Moriya clan was an offshoot of the Shakya clan - to which Prince Siddhartha (the future Sri Gautam Buddh) belonged. | The Sanskrit language has no equivalent for a slave. [Das/Dasi = attendant.] The celebrated Gupta emperors too came from humble origins as did the Nandas. [However, in the absence of a capable, visionary (far-sighted, sagacious), keertimaan (inspirational, due to their karm, contribution and achievements - towards the larger/collective good) and charismatic Gulliver - to steer the course - this system has crumbled/floundered.]

Administration/administrative functions and governance (which are also intrinsic to empires and kingdoms) requires extensive interactions (since it is a cumulative or sum-total of various functions), holding of dialogues, decision-making and alliance-building is necessary, and therefore familiarity is an important criteria.

[Pic: The Rustless Wonder. *The Iron Pillar at Delhi, erected by ChandraguptaII Vikramaditya.] | Ancient India achieved remarkable strides in innovation, creativity, research, town-planning (including sanitation/drainage system), trade and other economic activity; science, mathematics, astronomy, metallurgy, art, architecture, literature, poetry and sculpture flourished; the cultural development of ancient India reached its zenith. | Perhaps stability, reassurance, and continuity (absence of avoidable turmoil) was linked to the Cakravartin and/or the 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration'. Perhaps stability and continuity were overweening factors (important cogs in the wheel) for the rest to fall in place. [A nucleus is necessary.] Trying to rebuild the wheel or framework/architecture at short intervals may not have been prudent, probably counterproductive too (as is evident from the events following the decline of the Gupta era - the repercussions of which have been extremely far-reaching. Collective myopia precipitated the decline of ancient India.) | Certain other line of work such as business, diplomacy, medicine, the legal profession and even entertainment (to some extent) - follow this trend/model, perhaps familiarity (generational ties) and the strength borne out of it (ease of interaction, trust, confidence etc) matters. These are critical intangibles, and not quite quantifiable.

*The Iron Pillar at Delhi: The Iron Pillar represents one of the world's foremost metallurgical curiosities. Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 C.E.), of the Gupta Empire or Gupta Sāmrājya that ruled northern India (320–550), erected the pillar, standing nearly seven meters high and weighing more than six tons. [The history of the Gupta dynasty probably begins with its founding by Sri-Gupta around 240 C.E. The period during the Gupta Empire is referred to as the Golden Age of India, embracing art, architecture, literature, sculpture, education and trade. There are conflicting theories regarding the original homeland of the Guptas. (It is possible that they belonged to the western regions of ancient India, like the Mauryas. There were two Magadha-s: one each on the western and eastern regions of ancient India). ~ Although historians like H.C. Raychoudhuri states that the Guptas originated from the Varendri region (Varendra Bhumi in Bengal), which is now part of Rangpur and Rajshahi Division of Bangladesh. Yet others consider the surrounding region of Murshidabad as the original home of the Guptas.] Archaeologists identified Chandragupta II Vikramaditya based on careful analysis of archer type Gupta gold coins. The pillar, with an idol of Garuda at the top, was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (pada = feet; giri = hill), identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the close vicinity of Besnagar, Vidisha and Sanchi, towns located about 50 km east of Bhopal, in central India. [The iron pillar was perhaps the Garuda Dhvaj or Garud Stambh. Sri Vishnu is also known as Garuda Dhvaja (bearer of the Garuda insignia/emblem or flag). Dhvaja = insignia, emblem or flag. Here, Garuda is probably indicative of eagle or maybe falcon. Perhaps Mountain Hawk Eagle. Though in India, the noble-natured Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) or Singapore Bald Eagle is considered as the contemporary representation of Garuda.] | BG 10.30: || mṛgāṇāḿ ca mṛgendro 'haḿ vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām || ~ "among animals I am the lion, and among birds I am Garuḍa." ~ Does this verse have anything to do with the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath and the Garuda Stambh (the Iron Pillar at Delhi - by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya)? | Vishnupadagiri sits on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The Iron Pillar served an important astronomical function, in its original site; its early morning shadow fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayain Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only in the time around summer solstice (June 21). The creation and development of the Udayagiri site appears to have been clearly guided by a highly developed astronomical knowledge. Therefore, the Udayagiri site, in general, and the Iron Pillar location in particular, provide firm evidence for the astronomical knowledge in India around 400 CE. | The pillar bears an inscription stating that it had been erected as a flagstaff in honour of Sri Vishnu, and in the memory of the Gupta Emperor Chandragupta II (375-413/414). [Samraat Chandragupta II is also known as Vikramaditya.] Made up of 98 percent wrought iron of pure quality, it stands 23 feet 8 inches (7.21 m) high and has a diameter of 16 inches (0.41 m). Coal-fueled furnace would have been unable to achieve the high temperatures need to form such a pillar. The pillar (thus) serves as a testimony to the expert skill of ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. | The iron pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists for its ability to withstand corrosion for the last 1600 years, despite harsh weather. Its unusually good corrosion resistance appears to be due to a high phosphorus content, which together with favorable local weather conditions promotes the formation of a solid protective passivation layer of iron oxides and phosphates, rather than the non-protective, cracked rust layer that develops on most ironwork. [A fence was erected (by the government of India) around the pillar to prohibit the popular tradition of standing with one's back to the pillar, making the hands meet behind it, as a token of good luck.]

[Note: Vikram means: one who is wise, diligent, brave and strong as well as victorious. The Sanskrit word -kram is a root word meaning 'step or stride', so the name Vikram can be understood to mean Vishnu's stride in itself, or as a name which reflects the qualities of Vishnu's stride. | Vishnuh: Long-striding (as with vigour). In Vedic scripture, Vishnu's stride is said to be over the Earth, the Sky, and the all-pervading omnipresent essence of the Universe (Brhmaand). Hence Sri Vishnu is also known as Trivikram. | Aaditya = scintillating effulgence; also a reference to the Sun-god (Surya-deva). The Avatara (Garbodakshayi Vishnu, Hiranyagarbhah or Savitri) is the manifestation, personification or embodiment of the Sun-god (Savitr). Therefore, Vikramaditya roughly translates to: the radiance of Vikram.]

The wisdom behind the 'Chakravartin system of governance/administration' is this: diverse nations/cultures/peoples were able to celebrate and share their ideals and aspirations... leading to harmony, wholeness and integrity. [A veritable rainbow or alpana/motif if you may.] As a result: they were (largely) able to rise above their petty identities, narrow self-interests, and prejudices/disputes; they were (thus) also able to identify with their commonalities. ~ This balanced and holistic worldview was a prerequisite for a sustainable and resilient future. This was the big vision... integrating the multifaceted nature of their co-existence with collaboration. It needed collective effort: coexistence and cooperation. Recognizing and/or accepting intricacies (composite culture/diversities) required forbearance and understanding. It needed energetic engagement with diversity - an achievement, 'coz mere diversity without real (organic) relationship would have yielded schisms/misunderstandings; the 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration' (instead) sought understanding across lines of difference, thus their ignorance of one another was minimized. They could hold their deepest differences not in isolation, but in relationship to one another: through constructive dialogue (both speaking and listening) and engagement, give and take, mutual respect, and so on... and this process (very likely) revealed both common understandings and real differences; however, given their guiding/management principles and qualitative approach/attitude/disposition, they could surge over or submerge these differences... leading to an organic confederation (of composite cultures/peoples/nations) that defended together and shared/created together. They were (perhaps) able to reflect upon and assimilate the spirit of oneness. Coercion or craftiness (as opposed to diplomacy, patience, give and take and tactfulness) may not have achieved this level/quality of cohesion and endurance between superdiversities; instead, it may have widened and/or given rise to all manner of asymmetries and (ultimately) become a nemesis (ruinous or self-defeating).

In ancient India, barring few hiccups, the 'Cakravartin system of governance/administration' has pretty much held good (~ until the decline of the Gupta period, that is). Therefore, the earlier Cakravartins may have concentrated (i.e. invested time and effort) in building a framework/architecture/roadmap for the future - through consensus. And, perhaps, this architecture/roadmap was not tied to them (meaning, it was irrespective of any personality, name, and so on). Maybe, it was based on a longer-term understanding of issues and events (and the like), besides, on the future needs of the various lands/regions and peoples (that came under their all-embracing "umbrella"). Therefore, even when there were some hiccups... it generally held good. Maybe, such a consensus-based framework/architecture/roadmap/system was required to manage/govern diverse cultures and people, with relative seamlessness. Maybe, it (also) aided in a relatively smooth change of guard/transfer of power/succession/transition (in any part of the empire)... and (thus) ensured continuity and peace with minimal turbulence. Also, each emperor/ruler/king/chieftain may not have possessed the same caliber as the one preceding them. So (perhaps) having a consensus-based framework/architecture/roadmap/system made sense. ~ It (probably also) helped to unify while maintaining the cultural diversities et al. ~ And this (perhaps) also enabled the Cakravartin to concentrate (invest time and effort) on other important aspects, such as all-round progress, trade, innovation, and so on... instead of having to firefight all the time or expend all his time and energies in dispute-resolution/crisis-management.

On a side note: Given the nature of (e.g.) diplomacy and politics (meetings at odd hours - to thrash out the nitty-gritty and last-minute knotty issues, reciprocity, mutually acceptable agreements et al), and given that these line of work are overwhelmingly peopled by men, perhaps (or, at least, after a point) it is much easier for men to play the game... and thrive. Yardsticks are also different (especially in less progressive societies, since well-entrenched perceptions, social conditioning, idioms, phraseology et al comes into play, besides there is a tendency to pigeonhole women, in the sense that they are perceived to be only responsible for 'women's issues'.) ~ Also, while men can fully immerse themselves in the world of diplomacy or the hurly-burly of politics, women still have to traverse the fine line between work and home. (There could also be ego and insecurity issues arising out of feelings of inadequacy and negative thinking to deal with, and these could take a heavy toll - emotionally). Double standards too may come into play, especially if the women are staking out new territory.


Ravana's ten heads probably alludes to his excessive vanity and exaggerated self-image - his temperament flaws; it may also represent ten kingdoms. Despite this, Ravana was not a Cakravartin-raja. [Ten heads = top-heavy ~ 'too many cooks spoil the broth'.]


The many monuments and ruins are a testimony to aesthetics. Our ancients also lived in harmony with nature; they did not pollute water-bodies. Plastic and other non-biodegradable wastes were unknown to them. | Various sculptures and others forms of art tell us about the attitude towards 'tritiya-prakriti' (an umbrella term). The nomenclature itself is an indication that three kinds of humans were accepted. Sculptures, art and texts also inform us about the attitude regarding kama (desire). BG 10.28: || prajanaś cāsmi kandarpaḥ || ~ "of causes for procreation I am Kandarpa (Kamadeva or Cupid), the god of love." Short-term marriage (termed 'Gandharva Vivaah') - that lasted for a few hours or a few days - were prevalent. No ritual was required, though the consent of the female was essential. Gandharva Vivaah happened either to beget progeny or for pleasure. [Maharshi Veda Vyasa himself was born out of 'Gandharva Vivaah'.]

Amrapali was a famous and influential courtesan. Ladies of the night too existed, but were referred to as ganikas and nagar-vadhus. [Appropriate measures for healthcare and hygiene were not withheld.] | The terminologies give us a glimpse into the mindset and culture of the earlier peoples and eras. [Nazrul's 'Ganga Sindhu Narmada' is very relevant.]


The people (perhaps) were able to streamline and rationalize, and thus the nation too prospered. The social conditions were therefore much less convoluted. (The latter is ultimately self-defeating and counterproductive.) 

The cuss-words/profanity and/or derogatory terminologies and/or phraseology of modern times have no parallel either in the Sanskrit language or in the classical versions of other Indian languages. This (probably) is an indicator of what something as innocuous as phraseology or terminology can do to a people (conditioning, psychology, thought process), a society and (hence) a civilization. Coinage is easy; reversing it is a Herculean/mammoth task. ~ Therefore, our ancients very likely based their worldview on a rational and realistic analysis of human nature (characteristics, thought process, virtues, strengths, motivations, weaknesses/shortcomings/inadequacies et al) and human society, and thus built-in appropriate measures to prevent, dilute and/or mitigate unwanted/unpleasant aspects.


Human nature or traits are innate or intrinsic aspects and hence different from conditioning. | Negative mindset perpetrated for generations or information overload, etc can result in negative conditioning... which in turn percolates into the social fabric and thereby affect social conditions. However, negative conditioning can be altered or reversed, through sustained efforts and tangible steps/measures. Various greats and even unsung people have successfully changed, curbed or diluted negative mindset, conditioning, perception, etc. | However, certain aspects of human nature is interlinked with certain activities or line of work, such as, politics, diplomacy and commercial and mercantile functions. These have never been without quid pro quo, or some sort of reciprocity. Given the very nature of the former (competitiveness, profit considerations, information gathering, manipulation, manoeuvres, alliance-building and the like), the latter are intrinsic, innate and (hence) an integral part of these activities; it is not merely top-down but also bottom-up. [It is very likely that commercial functions and politics have never quite been mutually exclusive; they have always been part of the same ecosystem. Power-brokers and middlemen have always existed, however given the multifarious achievements of ancient India - probably they were not regarded as liabilities or impediments. Maybe they were considered as facilitators. So, did our ancients develop some sort of a mechanism
leading to the streamlining and smooth functioning of administrative and commercial matters, instead of avoidable logjams, stagnation/stasis and bottlenecks? 'Coz our ancient texts don't seem to be over-flowing with stories or anecdotes about 'bribery', and the like.] ~ However, it is unlikely that people would have been drastically different. Chanakya was prescient and pithy: "It's just as difficult to detect an official's dishonesty as it is to discover how much water is drunk by the swimming fish". [This can be applied w.r.t the general populace as well.]
Therefore, did our ancients devise a mechanism that legalized 'utkoch' - besides giving it a semblance of respectability... not only with regard to nomenclature but also by bringing in slabs, ceilings, parameters and the like? Did they recognize 'utkoch' as an important aspect/function - sort of an intrinsic cog in the wheel of statecraft/kutniti/politics as well as that of economic activity (commercial functions)? Did they also recognize it as part of economic activity itself, as well as a means of employment generation? 'Coz (e.g.) gambling was very much prevalent. Also, is that the reason why our ancient texts are not littered with stories and/or anecdotes about 'utkoch' and the like? ~ Simply because it may have been an accepted fact and so, did not raise eyebrows? Besides, given that ancient India achieved remarkable strides in varied arenas (irrespective of middlemen, politics etc), did our ancients not view 'utkoch' as a stymieing factor to development and progress? ~ Did they accept it as a constant/reality and an integral part of human nature (as well as that of the wheel of politics and economic activity), and therefore took practical measures and rationalized it, instead of letting it fester or tilting at windmills or indulging in utopian discourses? [E.g. how did Chanakya generate the funds to fructify his vision? How did the Krishna-avatar generate the funds for building the prosperous city of Dvarka or Dvaravati? Or for the 'Dharm-yudh'  - battle of ideas, principles, vision and progress, that both waged - for the future of humanity, for a prosperous and vibrant society to emerge?] Also, avarice, gambling, petty crimes etc will always exist; society cannot function otherwise. Only when their intensity increases tremendously do such activities or traits become a bane (i.e. hamper societal progress and vibrancy). | The system of 'utkoch': this word could be interpreted as 'ghus' (in modern terminology). ~ Perhaps our ancients interpreted it as 'gift' or reward or consideration - for services rendered. The 'utkoch' probably varied depending on the matters and issues involved/resolved and services provided. So, maybe our ancients took a rational, practical and sensible view, and (therefore) legalized or regularized it - by putting a cap or ceiling and bringing in parameters etc along with appropriate nomenclature and so on.

Bharatavarsha means: the continent (Sanskrit: continent = 'varsha') that is dedicated (Sanskrit: dedicated = 'rata') to light, wisdom (Sanskrit: wisdom = 'bha'). ~ In other words: the light of wisdom or the wisdom of knowledge - enlightenment (through inner perfection - by the 'awakening' of the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. ~ Bharatavarsha or Bharatadesam also means, "cherished land". ~ Yet another name for ancient India is  Jambudveepa or Jambadveepa. [Jambu or Jamba = Indian blackberry.] So, maybe, there was an abundance of this tree ~ and hence the name. Thus, Jambudveepa = island of the Jambu or Jambul (Indian blackberry) trees. Or perhaps, ancient India was shaped like an Indian blackberry. 


~ The hamsa (swan) is supposed to possess the ability to separate the water from the cream (in milk). The hamsa's ability to separate milk and water symbolizes the need to intellectually discriminate or differentiate between positive and negative aspects (i.e. between the enduring/durable and the evanescent/ephemeral/trivia). E.g: The English language, in a generic sense, was the (metaphoric or proverbial) 'amrit' that arose out of a (symbolic) 'manthan' - colonization. Today this language is a link language - globally. ~ English has emerged as the global language, the language of opportunities. Therefore, deficiency in this language will hold back a nation’s progress. Tagore said: "We must recognize that it is providential that the West has come to India. And yet some one must show the East to the West, and convince the West that the East has her contribution to make to the history of civilization."

[Pic: Tagore in England.] ~ Tagore saw the need for international cooperation and sharing. The bard advised (rather insisted) that India must learn from other nations, for example, in science, as well as look inward. He believed that India had a message for the world, but he thought India must also incorporate others' messages into her own cultural and intellectual repertoire. Tagore also believed that inner development or cultivation of the self was vital, that India too must develop herself from within... instead of merely relying upon or borrowing others' ideas and innovations.

[Pic: Astronomer Karel Hujer with Tagore, 1935.] Though critical of the excesses and exploitation of colonial rule, he did not reject western civilization per se. "[...] I am not for thrusting off Western civilization and becoming segregated in our independence." He recognized the importance of what India could learn - from other nations/cultures/peoples - to/for her own benefit and progress. "If Providence wants England to be the channel of that communication, of that deeper association, I am willing to accept it with all humility. I have great faith in human nature, and I think the West will find its true mission." He also believed that the responsibility of a great future must be "untrammelled by the grasping miserliness of a past." Tagore's vision was to take on a more holistic attitude towards understanding the dynamic spirit of his time (and beyond). He also felt that the West should be capable of "imparting to the East what is best in herself, and of accepting in a right spirit the wisdom that the East has stored for centuries." ~ This is synergy creation or syncretism at its best. It is (after all) western innovation and technology that has helped build India's economic infrastructure.

Maybe Tagore and perhaps even Vivekananda talked about the importance of the mother tongue. However, it is necessary to also understand the social, educational and intellectual milieu of the times. Cultivating or advising to inculcate a culture of reading/scholarship is not the same as glorification of mother tongue (to the e.g. detriment of the English language). A cursory reading of their work is not enough; one may have to delve deeper. 'The milk of human kindness' is allegorical/metaphoric. Similarly, mother tongue being equated with mother's milk could be an allusion to the ocean ('samudra' or 'sagar'), also known as 'kshira-sagara' - the ocean of milk (kshira). BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || ~ "and of bodies of water I am the ocean." | It is a reference to the Sindhu Sagara and the mighty River Indus, perhaps the largest of all rivers in the world after the Nile. [Sanskrit: Nilah or Neel.] The A. Sea was earlier known as Sindhu Sagara. Sarasam also indicates saras - meaning: gracefully flowing. Saras or Sarasa means spring, pool or fountain. Saras or Sarasa can also indicate SarasvatI. Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake'. [Stream = the perennial knowledge stream - universal knowledge that flow from a vast unfathomable (achintya) reservoir of consciousness = the SarasvatI. (Higher Self. Universal Consciousness. Cosmic Mind). The confluence of the mere Self (individual consciousness) with the Higher Self is 'Self-realisation'. Inner perfection or Self-realisation: the ability to look both within one's own spiritual depths and into the universe beyond, for inspiration and wisdom.] BG 10.35: || ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "and of seasons I am spring." [Spring = perennial knowledge stream. The SarasvatI is an important river goddess in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit name means, "having many pools". The Sanskrit name for the River Indus is Sindhu. "Sindhu" means river, stream or ocean in Sanskrit. | BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || ~ can also mean: the SarasvatI and the Sindhu are one, inseparable. That the waters of the two (in a manner of speaking) joined together and in their immensity 'flowed' as one single river or ocean.] | Trishul could be a reference to a group of three Himalayan mountain peaks. Or it could be an allegory for the three rivers: Ganga, Yamuna and the mythic Sarasvati. Or both. [The confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna and the Sarasvati is known as Triveni Sangam or Prayag. | Triveni and Trishul; tri = three. ... While sangam is a popular word for a confluence of rivers, this particular confluence was called Sangayam, to represent the meeting of Sarasvati (sa), Ganga (ga) and Yamuna (yam). Sangayam could mean, to flow together. [Trishula could also be indicative of a trishul-shaped birthmark or scar on the face of the avatara ~ Sri Devi/Bhudevi aka the Krishna-avatara.]

Tagore, Vivekananda and other greats may have urged/advised people to read (and reflect upon) the work of literary greats (such as Saratchandra Chattopadhyay, Rishi Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, etc): to 'expand' the mind, to - in a manner of speaking - 'ignite' the mind. [The dynamism in us is also Fire. (Agni/Fire = kundalini energy/power.) ~ The Kundalini 'Fire' causes enlightenment of the brain cells.] But enflaming the Kundalini 'Fire' requires service to the fellow beings, to the society (steadfast, selfless/nishkam service or actions - that contributes towards a better society.) And/or to be a Sadhaka - of knowledge and wisdom - and contribute to the society. ['Rishi' (Sanskrit: rṣi) is a respectful honorific indicating erudition and the wisdom of knowledge - enlightenment.] | On a side note: Our ancient texts talk about the 'Saptarshi' - the seven wise and highly learned personages who have contributed immensely in the spiritual and material progress and prosperity of this great land and her people. The Saptarishi are Brahmarishi-s (Sanskrit: Brahmarṣi) - who understood the meaning of Absolute Brahmn (the impersonal/without qualities unmanifested Absolute OM ~ Cosmic Light or Light Divine - Divine Effulgence, as well as the unmanifested Param-Purusha (Param-atma) and the manifested, with earthly form Avatara or Para-Brahmn). They had (thus) attained the highest divine knowledge or spiritual knowledge - Brahmajnana (knowledge of Brahmn). Thus, Brahmarishi = the highest Rishi.]

To comprehend the thoughts, karm and advise of greats like Rishi Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore and Swami Vivekananda... one has to delve deep and then reflect, comprehend and imbibe. | Much of their oeuvre is soaked in the divine nectarean milk of Bhagavad Gita. The supreme nectar ('amrit'/pijush/piyush) is the milk of the Gita. ~ And so, attempting to forcefit great personages of rare intellect into narrow viewpoints, parochilism, small worldview et al will be misleading. It will also cloud the mind and intellect.]

~ Wish Satyajit Ray had directed 'Ananda Math'. Also, R.K. Narayan’s "Guide". [In Hirak Rajar Deshe ('In the Land of the Diamond King') Gupi Gayen says "Baro kashte pawa gyachhe Keshto" (song: Paye PoRi Baghmama). A white tiger is seen.]

On a side note: Rishi Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay’s 'Ananda Math' is a literary masterpiece - so long it is read or listened to without the baggage of prejudices and emotions. And translations won't do. Much will be either lost or altered. | Shanti is most interesting. And Shanti as Nabinananda is even more interesting. In the end - when she is looking for (her husband) Jibanananda’s body in the battlefield... a serene-looking, 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' appears. This figure leads her to Jibanananda's body... and then revives him. Once Jibanananda sits up... the figure (Mahatma; Maha = great; atma = soul) is nowhere to be seen. The most interesting thing is that this figure and Shanti (as Nabinananda) is attired in tiger skin, etc. [Jibanananda and Shanti then hold hands and plan to go on a teerthdarshan... before proceeding to the Himalayas.] While the jatadhari figure meets Satyananda Thakur (the 'guru' of Santaanvahini or Santaansena - the Vaishnabi Sena; this Sena’s mantra is: Hare Murare; Vande Mataram; "Tumi Vidya Tumi Bhakti, Tumi Maa Baahu-te Shakti Tvang Hii Pranaah Shareerey" | Hari/Hare = Dispeller [Haran] of Misery/Troubles/Difficulties (Sankat). | The conversation between this 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' and Satyananda Thakur makes for an interesting read. **In the end, this figure tells him, "A-jnaney? Chala, jnanlaabh koribey chala. Himalayshikhare maatrimandir aachhe, shheikhhan hoitey maatrimurti daekhaibo" – then takes him by the hand. | Jnana aashiya bhaktike dhoriachhe - dharma aashiya karma-ke dhoriachhe; bisharjan aashia pratishthha-ke dhoriachhe; Kalyani aashia Shanti-ke dhoriachhe. Ei Satyananda Shanti; ei Mahapurush Kalyani. *Satyananda pratishthha, Mahapurush bisharjan. Bisharjan aashiya pratishthha-ke loiya gyalo. [Tagore penned 'Ayi Bhubanmanomohini' (Refer: link) and 'Chirabandhu Chiranirbhar Chirashanti'.]


*Satyananda pratishthha, Mahapurush bisharjan. Bisharjan aashiya pratishthha-ke loiya gyalo. ~ It could be a reference to 'sunrise' and 'sunset' - learning and unlearning.

**In the end, this figure tells him, "A-jnaney? Chala, jnanlaabh koribey chala. Himalayshikhare maatrimandir aachhe, shheikhhan hoitey maatrimurti daekhaibo" – then takes him by the hand.

BG 10.25: || sthāvarāṇāḿ himālayaḥ || ~ "and of immovable things I am the Himalayas." ~ This could be a reference to the ancient Himalaya kingdom and/or the Himalayan ranges. [
Devi Parvati (popularly known as Devi Durga) is also known as 'Himalaya-putri'). Putri = embodiment, personification or manifestation. Tagore's 'Ayi Bhubanmanomohini' is very interesting. ambarchumbitabhalhimachal (the Himalayas), shubhratushaarkiritini (snow-white crown).]

Vande Mataram is the outcome of poetic genius; so long it is read or listened to without the baggage of prejudices and emotions.

... Shanti (as Nabinananda) and the serene-looking, 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' both attired in tiger skin, etc.

BG 10.23: || rudranam sankaras casmi || ~ "Of all the Rudras I am Sankara" [Rudra-Śiva] ~ There are eleven Rudras, of whom Rudra-Siva, is preeminent.


Note on Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay and Rabindranath Tagore:

Tagore as a boy was an avid follower of Bankim's novels which were then serialized  in Bangadarshan: "It was bad enough to have to wait till the next monthly number was out, but to be kept waiting further till my elders had done with it was simply intolerable."

Tagore grew up as Bankimchandra's literary disciple, owing much to the Master. When Tagore, in his initial years, came under severe attack by the critics for his lyrics, it was Bankim that supported the young poet.

Towards his last days Bankimchandra named Rabindranath, just out of his teens, as his successor. The young protégé accepted that with grateful appreciation.

The poet-scholar Romesh Chandra Dutt mentions that Bankim was the honoured guest at a party hosted in connection with his (Romesh Chandra's) daughter's wedding. Young Tagore who also attended the party introduced himself to Bankim and sat at his feet. Romesh Chandra Dutt honouring Bankim Chandra offered him a flower garland. To the surprise of everyone present there, Bankimchandra took off the garland and placed it around the neck of young Tagore, saying: 'this garland truly belongs to him. I am the setting sun; and, he is the sun now rising. Romesh, have you read his Sandhya Sangeet?' Tagore, it is said, was overwhelmed by this gesture of kindness and the affection showered on him by the Master.

Bankimchandra through his magazine Bangadarshan encouraged and provided opportunity for several young unknown writers to publish their writings. Tagore, who later came to edit Bangadarshan, wrote of Bankimchandra: 'Bankim Chandra had equal strength in both his hands. In one, he created literary works of excellence; and in the other he guided the young and aspiring authors. With one hand he ignited the light of literary enlightenment; and with the other he blew away the smoke and ash of ignorance and ill-conceived notions. Bankim Chandra alone took charge of creative writing and wholesome constructive literary criticism'. [One who has equal strength in both hands = Sabyasachi ~ one of the Krishna-avatar's many names.]

Rabindranath Tagore was a multifaceted splendour. He combined in himself a poet, prose writer, composer, painter, essayist, philosopher (thought leader), educationist, and a social reformer. But, it was as the poet that he gained universal recognition. He brought lyricism into Bengali poetry. His poems breathed freshness, an elegance and beauty, which were hitherto unknown in Bengali literature. Tagore was admittedly a superb poet, a creator of sublime poetry, though as a writer of short stories and novels (Gora, Ghare Baire, etc) he had hardly an equal.

Tagore's oeuvre is one of those things that cannot survive translation (into English), however much one tries; anyone who has had the experience of soaking in the magic of Tagore's lyrics will vouch for this.

Rabindranath was awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in the year 1913. [The first Nobel laureate of Asia and the first non-European to get a Nobel. ~ The East and West did meet.] That was also the year in which Sarat Chandra, at the insistence of friends, started contributing regularly stories to Bengali magazines in Calcutta. That is to say, while Tagore was at the zenith of his literary career, Sarat Chandra was gingerly stepping into the small world of magazines. By then he was already about 37 years old, a rather late age for a debutant. [ When, unexpectedly, I was one day called upon to serve the cause of literature, I had already met the demands of youth and reached middle age. Fatigue had set in and enthusiasm had dwindled - I was well past the learning stage. I lived abroad, unknown and cut off from all. Nevertheless, I responded to the call; fear did not creep in at all in my mind.] | He read Tagore's Gora some twenty times. Sarat Chandra's oeuvre includes Pather Daabii, Parineeta, Charitraheen, etc.

As regards his life away in Burma, he wrote:

"In that foreign land I had with me some of the poet's books - in prose and verse. And in my heart I had profound regard and faith. In those days I read and re-read those very books. I never pondered over such high subjects as what were their rhythm and diction, and what Art was, how it was to be defined, and whether there had been any flaws anywhere according to the standard. All this I considered redundant. What I cherished was just the deep-rooted conviction that a more comprehensive creation was unthinkable.

During that period I was not even aware of the Bengali literature’s progress wrought by the achievements of the 'Biswakabi'. I had not had the good fortune of acquaintance with him, nor had I the fortune of having lessons in literature from him. This is the truth. But I have been an 'Ekalabya' (A disciple in absentia). I even carried his stories, poems and other publications abroad. I read those books several times, but I could not pick up his mastery in the majesty of his language and expressions. I had the deep conviction in mind that there could not be any creation more complete than this. I strongly feel that his works became my literary stock-in-trade". [Pic: Rabindranath Tagore and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay.]

The conversation between the 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' and Satyananda Thakur makes for an interesting read. However, one will have to read the original (translations won't do) - to comprehend it. There is mention of the necessity to comprehend and rejuvenate the Sanaatan roots/essence (of Hindu Dharma - way of life), the necessity to strive towards inner perfection (to regenerate dharmic principles, sattvic aspects and Self-realisation), cultivation of science and scientific temper, focus on agriculture, societal progress and prosperity, and the essence of Sanaatan Dharma as a perennial knowledge stream (not excessive rituals and idol worship). The 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' also says that India needed western education and scientific knowledge, they would benefit from it; and that Indians won't be able to do it themselves. Since they lacked the necessary skills, abilities and temperament. The 'jatadhari apurbadarshan Mahapurush' also refers to sthula (gross) and sukshma (subtle). [The gross body is sthula sharira, the subtle or astral body is sukshma sharira.]

Tagore's poetry reflect all this (including "Where the mind is without fear"). [Refer: link.] Vivekananda's words too draw from it.

|| Bohu-rupe sammukhe tomaar aami, kotha khunjichho Ishvar? Jibe prem kare jei jan, Shei jan shebichhe Ishvar || ~ The divine is present in everything (Universal Form of the Primordial - the Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop - incorporates everything. | Service to mankind (not restricted to humankind alone) is service to God. That is true worship.

A quote from Swami Vivekananda's speech (Welcome Address - Chicago, Sept 11, 1893) ~ in response to the warm and cordial welcome he received: "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee."

~ This is the essence of Sanaatan Dharma. [Not to be confused from Brahminical faith or even Hinduism (a term that came about in the 19th century).] Without its Sanaatan DNA (essence or roots) this way of life is incomplete. [Shaashvata or Sanaatana = Eternal, perennial knowledge stream. Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake'.] | Attempts to 'prove' the supremacy of Lord Shiva over Lord Vishnu and/or vice versa have been unhelpful. The 'rejection' of the Buddha-avatar/Buddha Sakyamuni (due to the rise of Brahminical faith) has not helped either. | After all, they are all part of || yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham - BG 4.7 ||

As per a commitment, the ten principal manifestations (avatars) help and guide humankind yuge-yuge (yug/era after yug/era - time and time again) - whenever adharma - negativism or malevolence gains the upper-hand (i.e. when negativism, confusion, avarice, ignorance, etc becomes a bane).

BG 4.8 || paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge-yuge ||

paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam = to curb malevolence/negativities (including the negativism that resides in the hearts and minds of humankind, viz., lethargy, apathy, perfunctoryness, ignorance, moribund discourse, finger-pointing, inertia, and other members of that brood), for the collective good of humanity, sambhavami yuge-yuge = I manifest Myself (sambhavami) yuge-yuge - yug/era after yug/era. The focus/objective is to revive or rejuvenate dharma, i.e. sattvic or noble aspects (dharma-samsthapanarthaya).

... Whenever humankind is bewildered - unable to find a solution or direction, or is hurtling towards 'quicksand' (quagmire)... only then, the Eternal Divine Being (Param-atma) manifests (in earthly form - Avatara) - to stem the degeneration/downward slide, to stabilize and to rejuvenate. | In other words: the avatars manifest themselves to correct or reset the course. ~ Only an avatara can lift humankind from zero level or from sub-zero level (i.e. from the lowest point - from considerable ignorance, confusion, stagnation, decay etc - signifying the metaphoric 'quicksand' or quagmire)... and put it back on an upward trajectory; only an avatara has the capacity/caliber/ability to be that catalyst: to prevent a collapse of basic structure of mankind, to prevent mankind's slide into 'quicksand' or quagmire (or to pull it out from one) ~ i.e. to achieve a positive change of course or an organic turn-around... to set the ball rolling, so to speak. [~ And, this should help us to understand what the Varaha-avatar (the great one-tusked boar) is indicative of. This avatar is regarded as the supreme form of Sri Vishnu. If we comprehend the concept of cosmic dualism or duality (Param-atma and Avatara)... we will also understand what this means. | Only avatars possess this kind of ardent convictions of duty and the unflinching courage of convictions, ingenuity (imagination) and work ethic - to steer the course through tortuous events and (allegoric) choppy waters... to put things on the road to recovery. They are also cosmic teachers and teach through their words, deeds and actions; however, it is for humankind to understand/comprehend the lessons imparted. Note: Though the Krishna-avatara says 'I', it is not to be construed as 'I-Me-Myself'. The avatara is unselfish and without ego.]

The Ram-avatara, the Krishna-avatar and the Buddh-avatar is part of || yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham || ~ depending on the challenges or impediments of the time. The focus/objective is to revive or rejuvenate dharma  (dharma-samsthapanarthaya) - dharmic principles, sattvic or noble aspects (traits, qualities), courage of convictions, etc.

Sanaatan Dharma is a way of life as well as a coalition of religions (meaning: different paths e.g. Shakta, Shaiva, Vaishnav). One can be a Hindu and yet be a Shakta or a Shaiva or a Vaishnav. And so, the rise of what is now known as Brahminical faith and the resultant 'rejection' of the Buddh-avatar, the 9th Vishnu, was extremely myopic). Therefore, 'supremacy' or domination of a specific path will be deleterious. Besides, religiofication, religionisation or politicization of knowledge (especially scientific knowledge, poetry or literature) is unhelpful and counter-productive.


Nicola Tesla and Swami Vivekananda, peerless men in their respective fields:
Vivekananda (link1 and link2) offered him a treasure trove of Vedic wisdom about energy and matter, about how the vedic science considered the universe to be charged. | Tesla was charmed to hear about the Vedantic Prana and Akasha and the Kalpas, which according to him are the only theories modern science can entertain. | Tesla promised Vivekananda that he would mathematically demonstrate that force and matter could be equated to potential energy in some fashion. | Swami Vivekananda, late in the year l895 wrote in a letter to an English friend, "Mr. Tesla thinks he can demonstrate mathematically that force and matter are reducible to potential energy. I am to go and see him next week to get this new mathematical demonstration. In that case the Vedantic cosmology will be placed on the surest of foundations. I am working a good deal now upon the cosmology and eschatology of the Vedanta. I clearly see their perfect union with modern science, and the elucidation of the one will be followed by that of the other." (Complete Works, Vol. V, Fifth Edition, 1347, p. 77). Here Swami-ji uses the terms force and matter for the Sanskrit terms Prana and Akasha. Tesla used the Sanskrit terms and apparently understood them as energy and mass. (In Swami-ji's day, as in many dictionaries published in the first half of the twentieth century, force and energy were not always clearly differentiated. Energy is a more proper translation of the Sanskrit term Prana.) | Swami-ji seems to have sensed where the difficulty lay in joining the maps of European science and Advaita Vedanta and set Tesla to solve the problem. It is apparently in the hope that Tesla would succeed in this that Swami-ji says "In that case the Vedantic cosmology will be placed on the surest of foundations." 

Swami Vivekananda believed that Vedic science will get a more surer footing in collaboration with the West. He also met with many of the well-known scientists of the time including Professor Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin and *Nikola Tesla (the great scientist who specialized in the field of electricity.) | The meeting with the Swami-ji greatly stimulated Tesla's interest in Eastern Science; Vivekananda's explanation of the Samkhya (saNkhya) cosmogony and the theory of cycles given by the Vedas impressed him immensely. He was particularly struck by the resemblance between the Samkhya theory of matter and energy and that of modern physics. Swami-ji later remarked during a lecture in India, "I myself have been told by some of the best scientific minds of the day, how wonderfully rational the conclusions of the Vedanta are. I know of one of them personally, who scarcely has time to eat his meal, or go out of his laboratory, but who would stand by the hour to attend my lectures on the Vedanta; for, as he expresses it, they are so scientific, they so exactly harmonize with the aspirations of the age and with the conclusions to which modern science is coming at the present time". Maybe Swami-ji was hopeful that Tesla would be able to show that what we call matter is simply potential energy because that would reconcile the teachings of the Vedas with modern science. Tesla understood the Sanskrit terminology and philosophy and found that it was a good means to describe the physical mechanisms of the universe as seen through his eyes. (It would behoove anyone attempting to understand the science behind the inventions of Nikola Tesla to study Sanskrit and Vedic philosophy.) ~ Tesla apparently was unable to show the identity of energy and matter. The mathematical proof of the principle did not come until about ten years later when Albert Einstein published his paper on relativity. ~ Thus, the West then knew what had been known in the East for millenniums. [Note: The great Satyendra Nath Bose and Einstein have collaborated: The Bose-Einstein condensate. Dr. S.N. Bose is also the Bose behind Boson (e.g. Higgs-Boson). The name boson was coined to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose in developing, with Einstein, Bose-Einstein statistics - that theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles. Dr. S.N. Bose deserved the Nobel Prize, as did the brilliant polymath Acharya J.C. Bose. And so did Dr. Meghnad Saha, Srinivasan Ramanujan and Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray. | Dr. Satyendra Nath Bose along with Dr. Meghnad Saha, established modern theoretical physics in India. Bose made significant advances in statistical mechanics and quantum statistics, the description of all forces by a single field theory, X-ray diffraction and the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the ionosphere. Albert Einstein's generalization of Bose's work led to the system of statistical quantum mechanics, now known as Bose-Einstein statistics, which describes particles of integral spin, which may multiply occupy the same quantum state. Such particles are now known as "bosons" after the name of Dr. S. N. Bose. ~ Bose's name has become synonymous with modern physics. There is no other scientist whose name is so indissolubly linked with Einstein in all the textbooks of physics. | Tagore dedicated his book 'Visva Parichay' (Introduction to the World of Science) to Bose. (In 1956 Dr. S.N. Bose became the Vice Chancellor of the Visva Bharati University at Santiniketan founded by Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore). With Professor Satyendra Nath Bose an era ended - an era of great men who created science in India. | Bose was a rare combination of kaleidoscopic versatility. He worked in as diverse fields as chemistry, mathematical physics, mineralogy, biology, soil science, philosophy, archaeology, the fine arts, literature and languages.]

[Pic: Nicola Tesla, the extraordinary inventor and father of electricity as we know it today.] *Born, so the stories go, in the middle of a thunderstorm in Serbia, Tesla has left a fascinating legacy to the world today. Magnetism is measured in Tesla, a unit named after him. He also showed that alternating current (A/C) was superior to direct current (D/C) - when it came to transmitting electricity over a distance. If he hadn't... the world would have been filled with electrical substations at the end of each road, because D/C doesn't do distance well. [~ AC is better for distributing power over a distance because it allows the easy changing of voltages with a transformer. Power is calculated as current times voltage (P = IV). For a given amount of power to be sent, a low voltage requires a higher current. But metal conducting wires have resistance; some of that precious power will be lost as heat in the wires. Power loss is given by P = I²R. So from this its obvious that low-voltage, high-current transmissions will cause a much greater power loss than high-voltage, low-current ones. This fact holds whether DC or AC is used. ~ But, and here is the clincher, transforming DC power from one voltage to another is difficult and expensive. But with AC these voltage changes can be done with simple and cheap transformer coils with no moving parts and no maintenance. Tesla wins in theory and in practice. | He also claimed to have worked out a 'dynamic theory of gravity' - even Einstein was unsuccessful at this - but it is yet to be published. So whether it is about plugging in mobile phone chargers or using wifi, it was Tesla, the unsung genius who made it all possible. His alternating current system for one still keeps the world alight to the present day. His other inventions and theories... all represent engineering feats of revolutionary capacity, opening new vistas of scientific advancement since their inception. | The question now, when one considers the current technological advances, the global energy demands and the effects on nature and climate, is - who will be the next great Tesla, to transform our technology age with a new way of thinking?

Swami-ji's stature makes him a universal figure. Vivekananda's message was really the message of modern humanity. His personality was rich and profound; unceasing in his activity, boundless in his love, profound and versatile in his wisdom, exuberant in his emotions - he was indeed a rare personality. ~ A fighter (for humanity, for universalism, and so on) to the core of his being, he was a worshipper of Shakti and gave a practical interpretation to the Vedanta - for the uplift of his countrymen. A Yogi of the highest spiritual level in direct communion with the truth, he devoted his whole life for the moral and spiritual uplift of his nation and of humanity. Vivekananda was energy personified, and action (karm-yog) was his message to humanity. In every way, he was integrating; he was seeing the forces for good, the constructive forces, in the different countries (he visited). Thus, Vivekananda's call to India to recognize herself - this again was not nationalism in the smaller sense, it was a kind of internationalism sublimated. | Vivekananda preached a great message that is not tied to any dos and don'ts. He addressed one and all. His message thus roused the heart of the youths in a most pervasive way. This message (at one and the same time) was about dignity and respect along with energy and power – dynamism; it imparted to others and pervaded his life with a wonderful dynamism. [The dynamism in us is also Fire. (Agni/Fire = kundalini energy/power.) ~ The Kundalini 'Fire' causes enlightenment of the brain cells.] | It was Swami-ji's hope that India would create a new social order and a new civilization by combining her best spiritual traditions with the latest advancements in science and technology. She would be rich both materially and spiritually. He knew that affluence was not enough, humanity had to be human too (humanism). Through his realization of the unique harmony that lies in all he wanted India to set an example before the whole world. "Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached" was his message**. Swami Vivekananda propagated the ideal of performing selfless service to all (nishkam karma, selfless non-glory-seeking actions/service to humanity); his message enthused the youth of India and of the whole world to realize one's own self. | Swami-ji made a tremendous impression, first in the USA and then also in England. The press paid him the highest tributes as an exponent of India's age-old values. This was the starting point of the Indian renaissance. Vivekananda advised against kupa-mandup syndrome (a frog in a well imagines the little well to be the whole world). He was not opposed to learning from the West, for he knew the West had some great qualities and it was because of those qualities that they had become so developed and exerted a great deal of influence. He wanted India to learn science and technology from the West and its power to organize and its practical sense, but, at the same time, retain her high dharmic values and spiritual wealth. [~ It is not possible to emulate such great personages, their purpose is different; humanity needs to (instead) deliberate deeply (introspect), understand/comprehend and imbibe the essence of the lessons imparted... and continue to perform their individual and collaborative/collective karm-yog (as best as they can).]

**Vivekananda's message "Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached" is similar to BG 2.47: || karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te sańgo 'stv akarmaṇi || ~ Do your duty (i.e. imbibe the spirit of dharma - steadfast, tangible and effective actions... whether individual or collaborative - for the larger good, e.g. towards materializing the collective societal goals, etc) ~ to the best of your ability. Overcome your limitations. Avoid action(s) not backed by adequate thoughtful consideration (cogitation). Instead of indulging in linear thinking (leading to simplistic or utopian 'quick-fix'), cultivate a broader vision or holistic view - to be able to comprehend the larger canvas or bigger picture ~ so as to be able to discriminate/differentiate between the enduring or essentials and transient aspects (superficial or trivial). Concentrate on your convergences. Do not highlight your divergences. Shun lethargy and volubility (loquacity and grandiloquence). Overcome inertia. Imbibe positivism (in attitude and approach). Never lose hope. In other words: Do your karma (to the best of your ability) and leave the rest to a Higher power or the forces of the universe. Also: Never give up.

The Krishna-avatara also advises us to cultivate mental equanimity: don't be deterred by lack of instant solutions or outcome; try not to feel exalted or carried away by success, accolades, fame, etc; try not to feel dejected or overwhelmed by barbs, bile, impediments, and so on. These are transient aspects. Instead, endeavour to inculcate a positive mindset (morale). | Also: Collective shirking of responsibility or being a fence-sitter or being weak-minded is not advisable. Rather, the focus should be on an objective understanding of the genesis, on prioritization, on longer-term planning (not ad hoc fixes) and performing well-thought out + collaborative, tangible and sustained karm-yog (continuous effort) - as best as possible. Perfunctoryness or platitude is not a substitute for sustained karm-yog. Nor is pessimism, despondency, cynicism, complacency, procrastination etc advisable. Be a problem-solver; remain steadfast in reaching the collective societal goals/objectives. Develop inner fortitude. ~ Frustration or dejection is for the weak-minded, and serves no purpose. The higher cause (the greater/larger/collective good) and the struggle (continuous effort) alone should inspire the thoughts and actions. | One might say that it is simply a matter of doing the dharmic thing (what will contribute towards a better society to emerge). Nothing more, nothing less. Not for the results or outcome, not out of desire for personal glory or fame. | Krishna's advise is: do your duty. Let your life become one with the cause of the greater whole. That, and that alone. |
Instead of being active participants in their own destiny, humanity cannot become idlers and mere spectators/bystanders. ~ That will lead to a gradual all-round degeneration/degradation. This is the core of his message.

Collaborative karm-yog also provides a national sense of direction, of collective achievement; it helps build character and mettle, otherwise a glorious past is no guarantee for a great future.

While in Japan Tagore wrote: "The Japanese do not waste their energy in useless screaming and quarreling, and because there is no waste of energy it is not found wanting when required. This calmness and fortitude of body and mind is part of their national self-realization."
Krishna is a most extraordinary figure - at a crucial turn of our history. She led by example, and instructed through her own behaviour (acharan) - the mark of a true guru. Her's was the highest dharmic mission; by her very appearance and diligent efforts, she not only revived/reinvigorated the principles of dharma (dharma-samsthapanarthaya), she also urged (advised) humanity to action (karm) - to duty. To karm yog. | The avatars are Cosmic Teachers and steward-mentors. They impart lessons and advise through their own behaviour and actions. It is for humanity to comprehend the lessons imparted via the words and deeds. It is important to understand/comprehend what an avatara is and why the avatara arrives – purpose, objectives, scope, and so on. [Force-fitting them into narrow or shallow templates will be misleading.] The avatara is always the fulcrum, around whom the events unfold. Ashvamedha Yagna. [Here ashva could be a reference to the unicorn - ekashringa - one-horned horse - signifying rarity or uniqueness.] The avatara is the harbinger as well as the executor. BG 10.28: sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ ~ "and of serpents I am Vāsuki". Here, "Vasuki" could also the allegoric churning "rope" (wound around Mt. Meru, rather part of Mt. Meru - Mandar Parvat -  supported on the back of the Kurma(tortoise)-avatar) in the samudra-manthan or Kshira-sagara manthan ('churning of the ocean of milk') stories. [Refer pic.] BG 10.23: || meruh sikharinam aham || ~ "and of mountains I am Meru." It is an allegoric mountain. Vasuki can also indicate the crown chakra or Sahasrara - the 7th chakra, the highest chakra. | Krishna comes across as ubercool - sorted and approachable, and not some distant authoritative figure. [Note: The Hindu and Buddhist alike regard Mt. Meru (the central 'mountain' of the world) as the location of the fabled Buddhist land or mythical kingdom of Shambhala (aka Kailash). Shambhala is a Sanskrit word that to the Tibetans means "the source of happiness". | Mt Meru is taken as the true centre of the planet and the world's spiritual powerhouse; it is the heartbeat of whole universe, the base of spiritual consciousness, heart of divinity; it is the center of the cosmos. Its summit is believed to align to the wheeling constellation of Ursa Major, the Seven Stars that circle the Pole (Dhruva Tara - Pole Star, Lode Star or Guiding Star). ~ Mt. Meru is very likely an allegorical mountain. The Dasavatara depicts Sri Vishnu (Garbodakshayi Vishnu or Hiranyagarbhah) supporting Mt. Meru on the back ~ as the Kurma (tortoise) Avatar.]

The avatara (probably) can *control the mind and thereby events - as and when required (based on the challenges of the time; the impediments, odds and challenges perhaps influence the nature of 'Ashvamedh Yagna'). [Yagna = steadfast Karm-yog with forethought.] | *(as is evident with Karna - whose allegoric 'chariot-wheel sank to the ground' at a crucial time - i.e. his mental faculties dulled and/or he experienced temporary or selective amnesia).

BG 9.11: || avajānanti māḿ mūḍhā mānuṣīḿ tanum āśritam paraḿ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaram || ~ "The ignorant deride Me since my earthly form/appearance is human-like (i.e. since I appear to be like any other human). They do not know (are unaware of) My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be (~ as the Supreme Lord [maheśvaram] of all that be)." | avajānanti māḿ mūḍhā ~ The ignorant deride Me since my earthly form/appearance is human-like, i.e. since I appear to be like any other human: Is this an indication that the avatar puts on a veneer?

BG 10.28: || ayudhanam aham vajram || ~ "Of weapons I am the thunderbolt (vajram or vajrapaani)".

Tagore's 'Aamra Nutan Jaubanerii Duut' (link), 'Tomaar Aason Shunya Aaji' (link) and "Bhengechho Duaar Eshechho Jyotirmay"
(link) is very interesting. | In 'Aamra Nutan Jaubanerii Duut' he says 'Aamra byaRa bhAngii [...] Jhanjhhar bandhan chhinna korey diyii -- aamra bidyut...' [Bidyut = bajra/vajra or thunderbolt. byaRa = impediments.] | Bhengechho duaar = the tearing down of metaphoric doors/impediments = the dispelling of the 'fog' (tamas) of inertia, slothfulness, apathy, illusion, indifference, confusion, hackneyed and stale aspects, and so on. | In 'Tomaar Aason Shunya Aaji' he says: Surjo aashen agnirathe aakashpathe, ei prabhate dakhin-haatey bijoykharga dharo | Dharma tomaar shahaay, tomaar shahaay bishvabaani | amar birjo shahaay tomaar, shahaay bajrapaani. [Birjo = valiance or shaurya, can also mean courage of convictions.]

BG 7.26: || vedaham samatitanivartamanani carjunabhavisyani ca bhutani mam tu veda na kascana || ~ "O Arjun, (as the Eternal Divine Being/Param-atma), I know everything that has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present, and all things that are yet to come. I also know all living entities; but Me no one knows." ~ Thus the Krishna-avatara was all-knowing (Trikalagya, Sarvagny) and yet enigmatic, inscrutable (achintya). She also knew each soul (individual or human soul/jiva-atma). | Maybe avatars do not speak much and yet say a lot. Maybe they are enigmatic; the Krishna-avatara is also known as achintya (unfathomable, enigmatic, inscrutable).

Both Krishna and Chanakya were bathed in real-life struggle. Chanakya is also associated with what can be called the 'porridge-bowl theory' - something he imbibed from an unlettered village woman. ~ That when handed a piping-hot bowl of porridge, one must not attempt to eat from the middle. Eating from the sides is advisable. This is pithy wisdom. And one is struck by its similarity with Krishna's advise. ~ BG 2.47: || karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te sańgo 'stv akarmaṇi ||

Chanakya was not up against well-intentioned and upright, righteous souls. Nor was the prevalent society perfect. On the contrary, it was fractious; besides people were either too self-centred, weak-minded or too aloof to even protest or do something to improve the situation. Things were simply spiraling out of control. His actions paved the way for watershed changes in the politics of ancient India and Patliputra (Megasthenes' Palibothra). A masterful political strategist, he was an ace at turning tables irrespective of the circumstances. Praised for his profound political wisdom, diplomacy in a politically charged environment also shows his long-term thinking and clarity of vision, besides the ability to stay calm in trying situations. | Chanakya is also known as 'Kaultilya' - the wily one (for his wiles and guile). However, Vishnugupt probably is a different person - possibly a redactor of the original work of Kautilya. | Chanakya and his doctrine is probably misunderstood (~ perhaps some of it is lost in translation and editing.) ~ Maybe he referred to the prevailing era and/or gave his views/insights (as a cautionary note) regarding how the things or events could turn out to be (in the absence of a common or collective roadmap/architecture/framework and Cakravartin). 

Keeping the larger/collective goals/objectives above him, Chanakya (also known as Kautilya - for his guile and wiles) did not seek power for the sake of power; instead, he maneuvered and out-maneuvered (not to be misconstrued as manipulation, that is indicative of selfish motives), in a series of masterful strokes ~ eschewing myopia/short-term considerations. Instead, he prioritized, he thought of the future, of future generations. He was a problem-solver - a do-er with a rare clarity of purpose, vision and sense of mission, and not merely a talker or idealistic dreamer. His clear-eyed and dispassionate/objective nature (coupled with monk-like self-discipline and focus) probably helped him to take prudent and well-thought-out decisions - that in turn helped him to bring together various regions/nations/cultures/peoples; this temperament also stood him in good stead as an able administrator. Chanakya thus was not the one to squander momentum or to let go of strategic opportunities, indigenous or otherwise. [He wouldn't have been Chanakya then.] | His motives, purpose, goals/objectives were non-selfish. He recognized/acknowledged calibre even in his staunch adversaries. ~ A shallow person with a petty mind could not have done this. Thus Chanakya did possess a great depth of character, large-hearted intelligence and magnanimity. He looked towards the future, and did what was best. His focus, untiring efforts, tenacity and determination remained unwavering, he kept the larger goals/objectives above himself.

Sharp, alert and possessing plenty of common sense and pithy, unflowery wisdom, he perhaps foresaw it all. ~ Chanakya was a fine statesman, a political scientist and a nation-builder, besides being a very able administrator; he eschewed parochialism, unrealistic/armchair worldview, textbook knowledge/wisdom et al, and clearly understood what needed to be done. And more importantly, how to go about it. Pragmatism and realism coupled with geo-political savvy, drive and far-sightedness helped him to be clear about the priorities; he was also strategic in his outlook (long-term thinking). His reading of events and regional dynamics was thus prescient. Fearless in his choices, meticulous in his preparation (planning - plan of action, strategising, negotiating, networking, alliance-building... the works), he was not confused or indecisive, nor possessed a unifocal view; he did not choose to look the other way, he did not choose utopian idealism, self-preservation or verbosity - to merely crib and carp/complain and do nothing. Instead, he took the initiative; he chose nishkama karm-yog - the doctrine of action (for a karm-yogi): selfless, positive, tangible and sustained action. Thus, his too was the highest dharmic mission. Else, ancient India would have been very different. Self-made and selfless, he was an extraordinary figure/personage for/at an extraordinary time/turn of our history. He was the Renaissance man - Yug Purush (an epoch-making personage). | The decadent, venal, vainglorious and tyrannical (allegorical Magadhan python) Dhana Nanda (and his allies) held sway, and later the all-conquering (allegorical Macedonian python) Alexander was at the gates. ~ Even a semblance of values and ethics (and karm-yog) had taken a backseat... deception, parochialism and survival of the fittest had become order of the day; there was lack of cohesion, as a result distopianism reigned - culminating in a greatly diminished quality of life or degradation of values, including shared values (shared civilizational values and ideals); crumbling of the basic fabric of society and symbolized values ~ resulting in selfishness, gloom and distrust - lack of an underlying feeling of faith and warmth amongst the common people, society was divisive and sort of dysfunctional, people lived in apprehension; humanity was in shambles; might was right; there was sheep in lion's clothing, none realized the gravity of the situation and spirituality was being sold for a price. ... At such a time and scenario - to salvage the situation, to uplift society back on firmer ground, to achieve a turnaround ~ is a Herculean task. It was only with a firm resolve (born out of his long-term vision + the unshakable courage of his convictions) that Chanakya handled the spiraling situation. Steadily navigating through (metaphoric) choppy waters and a myriad of tortuous events, relying only on his quiet confidence, intelligence, sagacity and willpower, he united/galvanized a fractured/fractious nation and lay the foundation of a glorious era - that was marked by all-round progress, from the arts to the sciences, literature and innovation as well as trade and other economic activity; as a result ancient India developed from within and evolved into a preeminent nation that shared a multidimensional relationship with other nations. Chanakya did not possess the charm of the Krishna-avatar; it was his innate ability and extraordinary brilliance and forethought that helped him tackle the difficult and myriad situations and challenges. He was valiant (shaurya) - a true braveheart. What he accomplished was phenomenal. He possessed the courage of the mind to make things happen + the mettle of grit and fortitude (inner strength, the strength of his karma) and was clear-eyed enough to recognize the enduring (what was required/needed/necessary, i.e. what had to be done) and what was transient (trivial or evanescent). Born a commoner but exhibiting the power of an enlightened one - the knower of the Bhagavad-Gita, he achieved the unachievable ~ given the circumstances and given the magnitude of odds and challenges. ... To work out an amicable solution when all seems haywire/precarious - it is only the power of Chanakya that can pin pointedly give an effective solution. [Chanakya epitomises Tagore's 'Akla Chalo Re' (link). He was also an outstanding economist.]

[Pic: Kalkiḥ - the White Horse (possibly indicative of horse-faced or horse-jawed, equine features - Hayagreeva or Hayaśirṣa, the horse-headed Vishnu). Haya means horse. Greeva = jaw. Sirsa = head. The white winged-horse Devadutta is the 'vaahan' or allegoric vehicle (Pakshiraaj GhoRa?) The avatar holds an effulgent comet-like sword known as Ratna Maru. (In Tagore's words: Jakhan aanen tamohaari aalok-tarabari). It signifies light (intellectual and spiritual rejuvenation), to cut through the 'fog' (tamas) of ignorance, ennui, indifference, confusion etc of the last-stage of Kaliyuga or the ghor Kaliyug phase (the 'lowest point' of all yugs, and euphemistically known as the 'Iron Age of ignorance/degeneration/decay'). It is also the symbolic 'sword' of destiny, of hope, opportunity and renewal. This avatar is also depicted with a parrot named Shuka.] | As per the Bhagavad-Gita ~ the 10th and final avatar of the Dasavatara (the final 'Preserver-Stabilizer') - Bhagavan Kalkiḥ (the Kalkiḥ-avatar, Vishnu-Kalkiḥ or Kalkiḥ-Maitreya) - would be almost like a lone warrior (possibly, a Krishna-Chanakya-esque figure + Renaissance Personage/Yug Purush - an epoch-making avatar). All imagery depict this avatar as a sort of Knight-saviour or Knight-defender. ~ For one who does not fear death... taking control of happenings is easier. [Nazrul's "Bidrahi" (Change Maker; Yug Purush - Renaissance/Transformative Personage - link) is very relevant. [Bidrahi literally means 'rebel'.] 'Coz this avatar is Purusa-uttama or Purushottam Satya (also referred to as Jagat-patih; Jagadishvar; Ishvar, Vishva Nath, etc - Cosmic Ruler or Lord of Creation). Tagore's "Oi Mahamanaba Aashe" (Cometh the Great One - link) and "Bhengechho Duaar Eshechho Jyotirmay" (link) is also very interesting.] ~ The 10th Avatar is a 'Sampoorna Avatar' - a total, complete, all-encompassing avatar; therefore, it is quite possible that this avatar may also be Lord Maitreya Buddha (the future Buddha or the next Buddha-to-be after Buddha Sakyamuni/Gautam Buddh). | In the Bhagavad-Gita, the Krishna-avatar (known as 'Leela Purushottam') is largely referring to the 10th Vishnu, besides explaining the cosmic process. | Krishna-consciousness emerges in the heart, while Kalkiḥ-consciousness emerges in the mind (manas, can also be: manas sarovara or kshir sagar). Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake'. The real Manas-Sarovara. ~ Kalkiḥ-consciousness is imagined as a brilliant white light entering the forehead (bhal = forehead). 'Captain Spark' of 'Joy Baba Felunath' - a Feluda story.  [Possibly a reference to the gentle and complete 'awakening' of the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. Or maybe the final state of the Kundalini 'Fire' - when kundalini reaches the Sahasrara - the 7th chakra or crown chakra - the highest chakra, it (allegorically) shines forth like a diamond disc/chakra (symbolically depicted by brilliant white) ~ signifying the light of wisdom = Surya-Kotti Samaprabha; as radiant as a million Suns. | The gentle and complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of the latent spiritual energy - kundalini (that lies dormant in the sacrum bone [a large, triangular bone] at the base of  the spine/Meru-danda) - unites the individual consciousness (mere Self) with the Universal Consciousness (Higher Self) ~ the jiva-atma (mere Self) or finite to the Atman (Supersoul) or Infinite. [Tagore's sublime 'Nirjarer Swapnabhango' ('Awakening' or 'Rousing' of the Fountain). Fountain = spring or sarasa ~ the perennial knowledge stream.] This results in sat-cit-ananda - the eternal bliss or spiritual ecstasy (inner joy and tranquility or true contentment) of Self-realization (Paramatma-realisation). Sat-cit-ananda = the communion of the mere Self with the Higher Self (sat). One who has experienced Sat-cit-ananda is a pure or perfect person (inner perfection). ~ Kundalini awakening connects a human (mere Self) to his or her Atman (Supersoul or Higher Self) - which is the source of all things (perennial knowledge stream?) This Atman is the eternal aspect of an individual's personality; when an individual become totally connected with it, such a person becomes a Buddha (the Enlightened One) - the state of complete wisdom, the stage where nirvana is attained ~ the possessor of true/eternal/non-transient knowledge or para vidya). The union or confluence of the jiva-atma (the mere Self or individual consciousness) with the atman (Higher Self or Supersoul - the Universal Consciousness or Cosmic Mind) is called Sanaatan Dharma or Aadi Dharma. Aadi = most ancient or pracheen; Dharma = path of illumination or surya dvarena ~ noble 'way of life'.] | The (allegoric) 'sword' is an effulgent comet-like sword, a 'sword' of dazzling light, the symbolic 'sword' of destiny, of hope, opportunity and renewal. In Tagore's words: Jakhan aanen tamohaari aalok-tarabari. | Tamohaari = to dispel the allegoric 'fog' (tamas) of confusion, ignorance, stasis, degeneration, etc. [Kalkiḥ, also referred to as Kalkin and Kalaki, is often a metaphor for "Eternity" or "Time". (Time is Kaalah in Sanskrit; can also be a reference to Mahakali or Kalika. 'Mahabidya Adyashakti': link. 'Jaago Chandika Mahakali': link.) ~ Another etymology (for "Kalkiḥ") from Sanskrit is 'white horse' ~ very likely implying Unicorn (symbolising rarity and uniqueness) and by extension 'Ashvamedh Yagna' - steadfast karm-yog with forethought and intellectual manthan. Aalok = effulgent; of dazzling light. | Nazrul's 'Jaago Chandika Mahakali' 'Heye Rudra Aadesh Dao', and 'Mahabidya Adyashakti' is also very interesting.] | Leela = events through which the Param-atma (as avatar) imparts lessons and/or sets examples and/or bring to the fore latent, ignored or undiscussed aspects of human nature or society. For humanity to see, comprehend, introspect and then (collectively) emerge with longer-term sustainable solutions/remedy. 

BG 10.33: || aham evākṣayaḥ kālo || ~ "I am also inexhaustible time."

BG 10.34: || mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām || ~ "I am all-consuming time, and I am the generating principle/cause/energy of all that is yet to be." (~ Alternatively: "I am all-consuming time, and I am too the birth of all that shall come into being.")

'Sampoorna Avatar' is indicative of a 'closure' of individual avatars. ... There may not be any further individual avatars after the coming of the final 'Preserver-Rejuvenator' (the 10th Vishnu). | Avatar comes from the Sanskrit 'Avatarana' or 'Avatirna' (manifest or descent of the unmanifested Eternal Divine Being [Param-atma - the Universal Cosmic Spirit/Param Vishva Atma or Purusha - motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe] into earthly form - Purusha-uttama). Avatar = manifestation.] ~ This maha-avatar will "close" Kaliyug, set the stage for the next Sat/Satya Yug of the next 'Maha-Yug' to manifest... and will also be the avatar of the next 'Maha-Yug' - which will commence with the advent of a whole new era/yug - the next Sat Yug or Satya Yug (~ the metaphoric "Golden Age" of progress, positivity, fresh thinking [dispelling of moribund aspects], prosperity, vigour, rejuvenation, etc). [Maybe it is called Sat/Satya Yug since it is heralded by and/or associated with Purushottam Satya (the Avatar). Purushottam or Purusa-uttama = greatest of all beings is indicative of the avatara (earthly manifestation). Purusha = the unmanifested (avyaktah) Param-atma or Param Vishva Atma - Universal Cosmic Spirit.]

BG 10.31: || pavanaḥ pavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastra-bhṛtām aham || ~ "I am the wind among the purifiers, and Sri Ram among the warriors" ~ i.e. warrior against the (allegoric) 'fog' (tamas) of moribund aspects, retrogressive mindset, narrow worldview, and so on. [
Tamaso mā jyotir gamaya -
From darkness (the fog of ignorance and confusion) lead me to light (the path of illumination - surya dvarena). Refer link.]

'Aaloker Ei Jharna Dharaaye Dhuiye Dao' (seeking enlightenment for the soul and removal of all pessimism, retrogressiveness, moribund aspects and prejudice):



[Pic: Unicorn, the one-horned (eka-shringa) horse ~ imagery for rarity or uniqueness.] | To understand a yug/era, or to comprehend how it will play out going forward, it is necessary to understand the avatar or rather the yugavatara. The changeover from one era/yug to another, including one Maha-Yuga to another, becomes possible by the coming of an avatar of the era/yug - the yugavatara. Thus the wheel of the cosmos is in the hands of Sri Vishnu. The Avatars, including the Dasavatara, are manifestations of Ksirodakshayi Vishnu or Anantasayana Vishnu (Param-atma) who reclines on the Shesh on Kshir Sagar. A few of them may be empowered entities, though. (E.g. the Parasurama-avatar.) | The earlier avatars arrived when the world-scenario was much different (the challenges were different, pollution levels, population size and demographics and even geography differed). The Krishna-avatar is thus a Purna Avatar, a total avatar ~ representing Sridevi (Devi Lakshmi), Bhudevi (Vasundhara/Prakriti), Parvati (Durga), etc. However the 10th Vishnu - is a Sampoorna Avatar, an all-encompassing avatar, and an unprecedented avatar. ~ This perhaps is indicative of a complete transformation of various aspects of the world order/scenario, as we know today or as has been known for a while now. Besides, it is indicative of fresh thinking, fresh perspective, and not merely regurgitation of specious, redundant or moribund aspects. Also, it is perhaps indicative of the gradual blurring of faith-related schisms and boundaries, and the reemergence/regeneration of spiritual aspects. | 'Religion' as we know today is man-made. A universal avatar perhaps signifies a steady de-appropriation or de-religiofication of God and a steady movement towards 'unity of God'. | The Rig Veda says: || Ekam Sat Vipraha Bahudha Vadanti || ~ Truth is one, but the wise know it as many. In other words: God is one, but we can approach the Almighty (the Higher Self) in many ways. | A quote from Swami Vivekananda's speech (Welcome Address - Chicago, Sept 11, 1893) ~ in response to the warm and cordial welcome he received: "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee." | In the Bhagavad Gita, the Krishna-avatar says: "Whosoever comes to me, through what so ever form, I reach him: all men (humankind) are struggling through paths which in the end lead to me." | Tagore said: 'Shhob path eshaey miley gyalo shheshaey tomaarii duu-khani nayone...' (Does Ketaksha [Katas Raj] and Pushkara have anything to do with 'the eyes'?)]

And a steady roll back of the myriad negativism/retrogressiveness of the last-stage of Kaliyuga or the ghor Kaliyug phase (euphemistically known as the 'Iron Age of ignorance/degeneration/decay') - which probably came about after the decline of the Gupta era. [This avatar is the annihilator of the negativism of the ghor Kaliyug phase and the harbinger of hope and progress - Sat/Satya Yug - the metaphoric 'Golden Age' of progress, prosperity, intellectual and spiritual rejuvenation, and so on).] 'Hinduism' too will have to shed its narrow worldview, selfish, short-sighted thinking (crab mentality) etc and regenerate or reconnect with its 'Sanaatan' roots, the 'Sanaatan' essence (that is integral to a vast and perennial knowledge stream) ~ as is implied in 'Ananda Math'. From what one can gather, this avatar is a universal avatar, and is likely to be a very interesting avatar. | The Kalkiḥ-avatar, also known as Vishnu-Kalkiḥ or Kalkiḥ-Maitreya, could also be Maitreya Buddha (the Buddha of the future, the next Buddha-to-be after Gautam Buddha/Buddha Sakyamuni), since both seem to have a Shambhala connection. ~ The Kalkiḥ-avatar is none other than Shambhu Nath (the Monarch/Ruler/Protector - Nath) of Shambhala aka Kailash. (While the fabled Buddhist land or mythical kingdom of Shambhala is ruled over by Lord Maitreya Buddha). | In 'Aaloker Ei Jharna Dharaaye Dhuiye Dao' Tagore refers to 'Bishva-Hriday' - heartbeat of whole universe, heart of divinity, center of the cosmos: it is a reference to Shambhala aka Kailash. He refers to 'Bishva-Hriday' in 'Aamar Byala Je Jaye' (link) as well. Does 'kshira-sagara-manthan' imply thought-waves? [Shira = head, manas (mind, brain).] Feluda's telepathy? "I want to know God's thoughts; the rest are details." - Albert Einstein. "My brain is only a receiver. In the Universe there is a core from which we obtain knowledge, strength, inspiration. I have not penetrated into the secrets of this core, but I know that it exists." - Nicola Tesla. Tagore's 'Jagorone Jaay Bibhabori': link. | [Pic: Lord Maitreya Buddha - the Buddha of the future. The Buddha to come in this age, is expected to bring enlightenment and abundance to all of mankind. ~ This could imply Sat/Satya Yug - the metaphoric 'Golden Age' of progress, prosperity, intellectual and spiritual rejuvenation and the like.] 

Shambhu Nath, Sankara, *Byomkesh, Neelkantha, Bhuta Nath, etc are very likely indicative of the same entity. BG 10.23: || rudranam sankaras casmi || ~ "Of all the Rudras I am Sankara" [Rudra-Śiva] ~ There are eleven Rudras, of whom Rudra-Siva, is preeminent. [The Krishna-avatar is referring to the Kalkiḥ-avatar, the 10th Vishnu. | Tagore's "Oi Mahamanaba Aashe" (Cometh the Great One - link) probably refers to the forthcoming avatar. While "Bhengechho Duaar Eshechho Jyotirmay" (link) talks about the coming of the manifestation/personification of the morning Sun (prabhat surjo) - goddess of dawn - as Rudra (Rudra-saaje). | Maybe Nazrul's "Bidrahi" (Change Maker; Yug Purush - Renaissance/Transformative Personage - link) ~ is a reference to an all-encompassing avatar.] | The Saptarishi, Navaratna, Manu-s, Chiranjivi etc too will very likely be there - to play their respective roles as per the cosmic plan. (These higher beings - Saptarishi, Navaratna, Chiranjivi etc - have always been there, and are perhaps not part of the karmic cycle). [Pic: The syncretic form of Rudra-Shakti, indicative of two aspects. Rudra is indicative of Vaidyanatha (problem-solver, solution-provider, change maker) and Neelkantha (the allegoric 'blue-throated one). Shakti - Devi Durga/Parvati - the invincible, unvanquished, aparajita. This should explain the imagery. Rudra is a woman.]

*Byomkesh is derived from byom/vyom (sky or air) and kesh (hair). "Ganga" is very likely a metaphor, may not have been a reference to the river per se. ~ And so, it is (very likely) the metaphoric or allegoric tide/torrent of the 'Ganga' that Rudra is supposed to have held in the (symbolic?) jata (dredlocks) and (thus) become "Byomkesh". | "Byomkesh" is therefore a title as well as a metaphor or imagery. Perhaps it is an allegory to indicate that Rudra's actions saved/protected humanity/society from great misery and/or mitigated (in force or intensity) the long-term damage. Maybe, it was instrumental in bringing about a turnaround - a positive change of course, thereby helping to lay the foundation for a new and better society to emerge. This should also help us to understand what Vighn-Vinashak or Vignesh (the remover of obstacles or impediments - in the path of progress, prosperity, happiness, or good/positive deeds) means. | "Jal-samadhi" too is probably indicative of the same. 'Coz unlike the Krishna-avatar, the Ram-avatar is depicted with a jata. This too could be symbolic. Rajanikanta Sen said: Prabhuh bishva-bipada-hanta tumi dnadao rudhiya pantha ('Tumi Nirmala Karo': link)... this may be the reason behind the other name "Hara" (to take away or to dispel, in other words: the dispeller of difficulties, lasting distress, misery etc). Krishna is also called "Hare" (meaning: the dispeller).] ... This song is similar to the Rudra Gayatri Mantra: || yo rudro agnau yo apsu ya oṣadhīṣu yo rudro viśvā bhuvanā viveśa tasmai rudrāya namo astu || ~ "To the Rudra who is fire, who is in water, who is in trees and plants, who has entered into the entire Universe, to that Rudra let our salutations go." | Songs by Rajanikanta Sen is known as "Rajanikanter Gaan". [Here is 'Taba Charana Nimney': link.] Tagore's compositions are called "Rabindrasangeet" - Tagore's magnificent music.

... The Param-atma is the permanent authority of the universe. The motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe; the higher power embedded in the fabric of the universe and responsible for its continuing existence and operation. The Highest Cosmic Intelligence and Cosmic Mind. And, Universal Consciousness. | The Krishna-avatar is Sridevi (Devi Lakshmi) and Bhudevi (Prithvi/Prakriti/Vasundhara - 'Mother' Earth/Dharitri) simultaneously. This signifies the mithuna rasi or Gemini aspect.

Devi Lakshmi is the devi (deity, deva or symbol) of wealth. She represents not only material wealth, but also the wealth of grains, courage, valour, spiritual wisdom, offspring, success, peace, prosperity, well-being (including psychological health) and spiritual contentment. [Though unhusked rice is kept near the idol, it means nutrition - healthy and balanced nutrition.] The earth belongs to Bhudevi. The whole of the universe belongs to the Param-atma (Devi SarasvatI, the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being; Ksirodakshayi Vishnu). Bhudevi/Lakshmi (avatara; Garbodakshayi Vishnu) and the Param-atma are non-different. [Pic: Devi Lakshmi or Sridevi. Sri Lakshmi Devi is the deity (deva) who embodies all that is auspicious and abundant on the Earth. There are eight forms or aspects of Devi Lakshmi: Adi Lakshmi - the original, first cosmic form of Lakshmi. Dhanya Lakshmi - goddess of crops and vegetation. Veera Lakshmi - represents strength and bravery. This Lakshmi is often depicted carrying a disc (chakra), arrow, spear and bow. She uses them to dispel negativities: fear, indecision, lethargy/ennui, and confusion. She blows the conch shell (shankhnaad) and creates Pranavah - to dispel the 'fog' (tamas) of negativism or unpleasant aspects. Gaja Lakshmi - depicted with elephants. The elephant (gaja) represents wisdom, endurance and longevity. This Lakshmi represents intelligence and richness of ideas. Santhana Lakshmi - prosperity and offspring. She helps to get through difficult times. Vijaya Lakshmi - the eight-armed goddess of victory, one who dispels fear. Two of her hands hold mudras (gestures). The first one is Adhaya which means "do not be afraid," and the second one Varadha meaning "a blessing." Aishvarya Lakshmi - to refine our consciousness and develop awareness, lack of straitjacketing. Prana Lakshmi - She is the radiant goddess of wealth, portrayed standing or sitting in a pale-red lotus flower in full bloom (signifying 'Self-realisation'). She wears many ornaments, wreaths of fresh flowers, earrings, bracelets, golden crown and red sari with golden border. One of her hands is in a position that grants the vara (boon or wish fulfillment) and drops an endless stream of gold coins. This Lakshmi gives wealth, abundance, success and development in all aspects of life. She is depicted accompanied by two elephants, signifying name and fame that bring worldly prosperity and also symbolises the unity and need to share - in order to experience one's own progress.]

The Srimad Bhagavatam says: || krishnas tu bhagavan svayam || ~ The Krishna-avatar is the Cosmic Teacher (Steward-Mentor) and Cosmic Ruler in earthly form or manifestation (avatara). In other words: the Krishna-avatara is a direct manifestation, and not empowered entity; the Krishna-avatara is the Param-atma as Avatara. | The Param-atma/Krishna-avatara is Chir-saarathy; it means: perennial guide. And so, it is not difficult to comprehend just who Jana-Gana-Mana-Adhinayaka [Reader of the Collective Mind of India/Bharatavarsha] and Bharata Bhagya Vidhata [Lord of Destiny of Bharatavarsha] is indicative of. [Refer link.]

Avatar comes from the Sanskrit 'Avatarana' or 'Avatirna' (manifest or descent of the unmanifested/avyaktah Eternal Divine Being [Param-atma - the Universal Cosmic Spirit/Param Vishva Atma or Purusha - motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe] into manifested/vyaktah earthly form - Purusha-uttama). Avatar = manifestation.] | All avatars may not be the Param-atma or Param-Purusha (Sanaatan/Eternal Purusha/Cosmic Spirit). Some could be empowered entities. BG 10.40: || nānto 'sti mama divyānāḿ vibhūtīnāḿ parantapa eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūter vistaro mayā || ~ "There is no end of My divine manifestations, O Arjun. What I have spoken to you is but a mere indication of My infinite manifestations." | Apart from the direct manifestations, there are innumerable empowered manifestations. Partial avatars are called aḿśa. The indirectly empowered ones are called vibhūtis. | The Krishna-avatara is also known as 'Leela Purushottam' (Refer link - to know what 'leela' indicates).

The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being (Param-atma, Primordial Being) is eternal and uncreated - Svayambhu - Self-manifested Being. The Upaṇiṣad calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahmn. | Soul of the Universe = Param Vishva Atma - the motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe. [Atma is energy, and hence has no earthly form or gender. Therefore, it.]

The Eternal Divine Being cannot die. And so, it is said: the Krishna-avatar departed or discarded the outer shell or mortal coil - Krishna deha visarjan (discarding of the outer shell/earthly coil). [It is not to be interpreted as 'death', and so, words like 'death,' etc is never used. Since the Eternal Divine Being cannot die. ... The Param-atma (the Eternal Divine Being) is eternal ~ possesses eternal life, is ageless, timeless, and is also the permanent authority of the universe.] There are two aspects to the Eternal Cosmic Being: the metaphysical (unmanifested) and the physical (avatara) i.e. the metaphysical Param-atma, and the manifested/vyaktah earthly form or manifestation (avatāra). Once the outer shell is discarded, the avatara (in case of a direct manifestation) reverts to Param-atma. [Param-atma has no earthly form or gender, since atma is energy. This Being belongs to all - as the Creator, Cosmic Ruler and Cosmic Teacher. The Param-atma is also adhaataa (above whom there is no other).] | The Phantom, known as the 21st Phantom (believed to be an immortal ghost; also known as "The Ghost Who Walks", "The Man Who Cannot Die" and "Guardian of the Eastern Dark") is probably modeled after the Param-atma. Refer pic. The Phantom lives in the ancient Skull Cave, and has two assistants: a trained mountain wolf called Devil and a horse named Hero. He also has a trained falcon named Fraka.]

Rudra (as 'Neelkanth' - the allegorical 'blue-throated one') purges the assorted negativism (known as halahala or kaalkoot) ~ the metaphoric 'toxic aspects' (such as: confusion, ignorance, delusion, illusion, cynicism, hopelessness, retrogressiveness, vanity, hubris, bile, pettiness, inertia, hypocrisy, apathy or indifference, narrow-mindedness, selfish concerns etc residing in the hearts and minds of humanity) and which - if allowed to accumulate - would lead to degradation of humankind and by extension societal degeneration (i.e. degeneration or decline in thought processes, cogitation and comprehension abilities, humanism, [shared] civilisational values and ideals, and so on). Rudra's actions thus helps to curb or mitigate these negative aspects - thereby laying the foundations for a rejuvenated and vibrant society to emerge. Rudra (as 'Neelkanth') accepts the 'toxic aspects' or negativism residing within the hearts and minds of humanity and/or resulting out of 'societal churn' - for the good of humankind ~ to allow it to transform and evolve. Rejuvenate.]
BG 10.23: || rudranam sankaras casmi || ~ "Of all the Rudras I am Sankara" [Rudra-Śiva] ~ There are eleven Rudras, of whom Rudra-Siva (also known as Sankara, Neelkanth, Byomkesh, Vaidyanatha etc) is preeminent. [It could be a reference to the Kalkiḥ-avatar. |
The 8th Vishnu, the Krishna-avatar, is a Purna Avatar, a total avatar. While the 10th Vishnu, the Kalkiḥ-avatar is a Sampoorna Avatar, an all-encompassing avatar, and an unprecedented avatar. ~ So, beyond these two direct avatars (manifestations in earthly/vyaktah form - visible to human/mortal eyes) which of the other avatars of the Dasavatara is the Param-atma, and which ones are empowered entities ~ my guess is as good as yours. Maybe within them (through them) one gets to 'see' the various aspects and avatars (including of the Dasavatara). However, the Parasurama-avatar is very likely an empowered entity ('chiranjivi' - immortal being).
Also, what was the human/earthly identity of the Krishna-avatar? ... The Mahabharata ('The Great History of the Bharatas') has three Krsna-s: the Krishna-avatar, Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, better known as Veda Vyasa, and Krsna Draupadi (Kṛṣṇā draupadī) or Krishnaa, also known as Panchali (the princess of Panchala kingdom, ahiling from the royal family of Pañcāla). The title of Satyajit Ray's debut film 'Pather Panchali' is most interesting. And so, is the title of its sequel, 'Aparajito' (unvanquished). Joi Baba Maniknath. [Panchali can also mean enigmatic, inscrutable (achintya). The Krishna-avatar and Kalika (Mahakali) is also known as Achintya. Both are one and the same. Draupadi and the Krishna-avatar is said to have had a dark complexion. It is very likely a riddle, to indicate Kalika.] | The 'vastraharan' episode is perhaps over-dramatized. It could be indicative of hostile and derogatory slights and insults (throughout which the Pandavas and other influential personages like Bheeshma, Dronacharya, Kripacharya, Dhritarashtra etc kept a maunvrat - either due to petty selfish reasons or out of fear of antagonizing Duryodhan. Only Vidur and one of Duryodhan's brothers, Vikarna, protested). It is also an example or even a metaphor on the "decadence" of society, on the norms of culture (civilisational values and ideals) and the decline of "dharma" (dharmic principles). Krishna later asks: a society that stood by silently and simply watched a prominent woman like Draupadi (who was also the princess of Panchal, and the daughter of King Drupad) being insulted in the most derogatory language and gestures, but neither protested nor reacted, what will such a society do when ordinary women are mistreated? ... What kind of society emerges is in the hands of the people ~ it is a cumulative of their actions, conditioning, thought processes, vocabulary, idioms, civic sense, mindset, attitude, worldview and so forth, all of which influence and shape up the following generations... and thereby the social fabric. For our ancients it was woven around Arya Dharma (which also entailed a level playing field)... however, this 'way of life' involving dharmic principles, later unraveled. | Krsna Draupadi probably induced illusion and hypnosis, by gaining control over Dushyashana's senses or indriyas. Possibly by controlling Dushyashana's brain and thoughts; some kind of 'inception'. Result: Dushasana was led to believe that Draupadi's attire was an unending one; and so, he continued to 'unwrap layers and layers of it' (under hypnosis), and finally fell to the ground - exhausted. (... In case the vastraharan episode were to be a literal one, and not allegorical).] Wonder who Mandrake the Magician is modeled after? ~ Mandrake is a magician whose work is based on an unusually fast hypnotic technique. Mandrake also possesses extrasensory perception, mental telepathy and telekinetic powers, can turn invisible, shape shift, and teleport periodically. It could be that the Krishna-avatar possessed these powers, including 'inception' (part of hypnotic technique). Ray's Shonar Kella ('The Golden Fort') involves hypnotic technique and telepathy. BG 9.11: || avajānanti māḿ mūḍhā mānuṣīḿ tanum āśritam paraḿ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūta-maheśvaram || ~ "The ignorant deride Me since my earthly form/appearance is human-like (i.e. since I appear to be like any other human). They do not know (are unaware of) My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be (~ as the Supreme Lord [maheśvaram] of all that be)." This probably is indicative of immense powers, and also alludes to the other aspect, that of Param-atma. [And so, the syncretic form of Rudra-Shakti. Also, Virupaksha, associated with Sri Vishnu, and Rudraksha, eye of Rudra, are non-different. Thus, Hari-Hara. Yet another syncretic form.] | The five Pandavas could be five different people or five different (aspects) of a single individual. The game of dice could be allegorical. And so, Yudhistira 'pledging' Draupadi in the game of dice could be indicative of his extremely opportunist and ambitious nature. Power and influence mattered to him. He was Machiavellian in his own way. He could 'stoop to conquer'. 'Pledging' Draupadi in the game of dice could be: ignoring her stance and principles, lowering her prestige, attempting to chart his own course (for the sake of gaining power, etc. In Bengali what is known as 'ghoRa dingiye ghash khawa'). Maybe also through his words and actions. Also, despite the insults hurled at Draupadi, he not only maintains a studied silence, but also makes every effort to make peace with Duryodhan etc and get a share in power. The throne mattered to him. Above everything. ... He actually entrusts Krishna to find ways and means to make peace with Duryodhana! However, we find Draupadi pouring cold water over Yudhistira's plans... by baiting Duryodhana (part of her arsenal of guile and wiles). She understood Duryodhana's nature perfectly. The narrative says that the Krishna-avatar was standing right next to Draupadi when she baited Duryodhana, and that the avatar had a hint of a smile on the lips. (~ It is not difficult to comprehend what Draupadi might have thought of Yudhistira, although she would have been impartial.) ... The Mahabharata ('Great History of the Bharatas') is a fascinating tale, its scale, sweep and grandeur is overwhelming; it is part of our pracheen itihasa. It is also a story that brings out various aspects of relationships in all its myriad shades. However, the many puzzles and riddles inherent to the narrative need to be figured out. (And once it is deciphered, that's it. One can then understand the larger canvas, the greater whole, the big vision. However applying logic [intellectual rigeur and vigor, intellectual manthan] is essential. BG 10.32: || vādaḥ pravadatām aham || ~ "I am logic of the logician." Can also be interpreted as "and among logicians I am the conclusive truth". | Patchy reading or reading it by fits and starts will not do. Also, it is important to intellectually discriminate or differentiate between the enduring/durable/essential aspects and evanescent/ephemeral/trivial aspects. The swan is associated with the former not the latter.) ... After all, the Krishna-avatar Herself is said to have assisted Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Veda Vyasa) to compile this magnum opus. (Sri Ganesh - eka-danta, Vignesh or Vighn-vinashak, and Unicorn - eka-shringa or one-horned horse, are non-different). BG 10.37: || vrishninam vasudevo 'smi pandavanam dhananjayah muninam apy aham vyasah kavinam usana kavih || ~ "Of the descendants of Vrishni I am Vasudeva, and of the Pandavas I am Arjuna. Of the enlightened/sages I am Vyasa, and among great thinkers/thought-leaders/poets I am Usana." | Vasudeva Krishna is the Lord of Dvarka and Mathura. Vasudeva also implies Bhudevi - Vasundhara or Dharitri (the deva/deity of the earth). Vasudeva could also indicate Vasudeva Dhanvantari (the Supreme Druid, implying change maker, problem-solver, soluton-provider). Arjuna (the greatest of archers) could be another aspect of the Krishna-avatar. And so could the mighty Bheem (Pavan-putra). Putra could mean: personification, manifestation or embodiment. The pavan aspect is associated with the Krishna-avatar. BG 10.31: || pavanah pavatam asmi || "of purifiers I am the wind (pavan)." [E.g. Joan of Arc is also known as Jeanne d'Arc, "The Maid of Orleans", and possibly even Jehanne. | The Krishna-avatar could have shared the Bhagavad Gita as Arjun, by using technology, maybe by creating holographic images.] ... Nakula and Sahadeva could be a reference to the twin horsemen of the Sun, associated with dawn. The narrative says they were born after the twin Ashvins were invoked. Now, the twin Ashvins are the devas of healing (allusion to Vaidyanatha?) Also the Ram-avatar invoked Devi Durga in the month of Ashvin (to seek her blessings before his battle with Ravana). And so, Yudhistira probably was the only husband (of Krsna Draupadi). So, 'Rukmini' and 'Satyabhama' - possibly implying two phases of the Krishna-Rukmini relationship - probably alludes to Yudhistira. He is also called "Dharmaraj," meaning 'honourable'. Quite ironical. [The Ram-avatar is called 'Maryada Purushottam' implying 'honourable' (maryada). So, was the Ram-avatar and Yudhistira empowered entities?] Maharshi Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa could be one of the seven Saptarishi (immensely erudite and wise personages). Maybe Devaguru Brihaspati. [Brihaspati is very likely 'Radha'. 'Gahana Kusumakunja Maajhe': link. Refer link for Rarh or Rarhbhumi.] ~ But who is "kavinam usana kavih" (BG 10.37)? Tagore says, 'Jokhon porbe na mor' (link). Maharshi Valmiki is known as 'Aadikavi' (the foremost poet or the primordial poet). Could he have been Brihaspati as well? In 'Pratham Aadi Taba Shakti' (link) Tagore says, 'tumi aadikabi, kabiguru tumi heye...' So, who is "kavinam usana kavih" (BG 10.37)? | Vishnu is also Srivatsankita or SrIvatsa-vakshAh, the one who bears the sign of Srivatsa (a mark known as the Srivatsa mark, on the chest). The Krishna-avatar also bears the mark of Srivatsa. The 108 Krishna mantra: OM Srivatsa Kaustubha Dharaya Namaha. SrI vishNu sahasranAmam: Om SrIvatsa vakshase namah. SrI vishNu purANam: SrIvatsa samsthAna dharam anante ca samASritam (1.22.67). In this description, the SrIvatsa mark is described as the pradhAna seated in the Eternal. (Tagore's poetically implied 'tumi aadikabi, kabiguru tumi heye...'?) The chief principle of things, (pradhAna, foremost) is seated on the Eternal, as the SrI vatsa mark. [Therefore, is the SrIvatsa mark indicative of Brihaspati - Devaguru? | Devaguru and Gurudev are quite similar.] | [Pic: Kṛṣṇā draupadī or Krishnaa - the 'fire-born'; it could indicate 'virgin-birth' ~ wherein even the gestation happened in pitcher-shaped incubators that acted as the surrogate womb. 'Fire-born' could also imply Kundalini 'Fire'. Or Agni Tirth (Shambhala or Kailash).]

Some accounts indicate that Chanakya was a "Dramila". Now, "Dramila" means, "running away" or "escaping". It is possible that this word was used (by our ancients) to refer to the people who escaped the great deluge that swallowed up Dvarka (Dvaravati). Later, these displaced people settled down in other parts. Chanakya probably was born into one such family. | "Dramila" is believed to be the root of the word "Dravida" by some scholars. Therefore, perhaps with the passage of time, this word - Dramila - underwent certain changes, and gave rise to a new word, "Dravida". ~ It is not indicative of 'race'.

There are multiple opinions about Chanakya's birthplace. According to Buddhist texts, his birthplace was Takshashila - located in north-western ancient India; he attended the famed university at the age of sixteen. The university offered courses spanning a period of more than eight years. So prominent was the place where Chanakya received his education that it goes to show the making of the genius. After acquiring vast knowledge in various branches of study, the young Chanakya... believing in the dissemination of knowledge and not in the storage of it, became a professor of economics (arthashastra) and political science at the ancient Takshashila University. His students looked up to him as an ideal teacher who inspired and exemplified great knowledge. | Chanakya's life was connected to two cities: Takshashila and Pataliputra (Megasthenes' Palibothra). This Pataliputra (originally said to have been built by Krishna) was very likely the capital of the Magadha kingdom on the western regions of ancient India (it was also known as Prachya or Eastern Country; Praesii or Prasioi to the Greeks).

Chanakya is also addressed by two honorifics: Pandit and Acharya. | "Pandit" indicates a wise, learned and enlightened person. "Acharya" means: "He who instructs through his own behavior (acharan)". That is the mark of a true guru. Chanakya can be called a satguru (a true teacher/guide).

Gurur-Brahmaa Gurur-Vissnnur-Gururdevo Maheshvarah |
Gurure[-I]va Param Brahma Tasmai Shrii-Gurave Namah ||1||


1.1: The Guru is Brahma, the Guru is Vishnu, the Guru Deva is Mahesvara (Shiva, Maha-Ishvara),
1.2: The Guru is Verily the Para-Brahmn (personification or manifestation of Brahmn [Param-atma, Purusha - Param Vishva Atma, Universal Cosmic Spirit] ~ the Avatara, Purusha-uttama, greatest of all beings); Salutations to that Guru.

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