Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Notes on the Indus seals (Part-I)

The first Indus Valley seal found at Harappa in 1872. [A fish-shaped glyph is also seen. The 'Matsya-avatara' is the first-avatara of the Dasavatara. Is it an allusion to a possible birth-mark on the face of the 'Unicorn'? The next glyph probably indicates Mithuna Rāśi (Gemini - the twins). The first glyph - is that a heart-shaped glyph?] The Unicorn (eka-shringa or one-horned horse) ~ It is imagery - to signify blue lotus (krishna kamal), implying rarity or uniqueness. [Horse implies equine features, horse-jawed or horse-faced.] The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being (the Primordial Being) is vishama (unequaled), atulah (incomparable), ekah (the one), naikah (the many), ekaatmaa (the one self), asankhyeyah (with countless names and forms), shoorah-veerah (the valiant; shoorah = shauryah implying intrepid, possessing courage of convictions and strong dharmic principles), vikramee (the most daring), saattvikah (one who is full of sattvic or noble traits and qualities), kartaa (the doer), maargah (the path), neyah (the guide), keshavah (one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva-Rudra): Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram); vishvam (one who is the universe); Vishvaroopa (one whose body/form is the Universe - the Universal Form - the Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop); Vishvaatma (Soul of the Universe - guiding spirit); vanamaalee (one who wears a garland of forest flowers); sragvee (one who always wears a garland of undecaying flowers); Mayur (the Lord Who Has A Peacock Feathered-Crest) and Shikhandee: One who wears a peacock feather.

BG 9.29: || samo 'ham sarva-bhutesu na me dvesyo 'sti na priyahye bhajanti tu mam bhaktya mayi te tesu capy aham || ~ "I envy no one, nor am I partial to anyone. I am equal to all. However, whosoever prays to Me with a pure (unselfish) heart (or renders selfless/nishkam service to humanity or possesses strong dharmic/sattvic/noble principles and virtues - for the greater good) I am also a well-wisher."

Swami Vivekananda's words too draw from it. || Bohu-rupe sammukhe tomaar aami, kotha khunjichho Ishvar? Jibe prem kare jei jan, Shei jan shebichhe Ishvar || ~ The divine is present in everything (the Universal Form of the Primordial - the Vishva-roop or Viraat-roop - incorporates everything). | Service to mankind (not restricted to humankind alone) is service to God. That is true worship.

Tagore's 'Padapraantey Rakho Sebakay':

The Rig Veda refers to the SarasvatI as a mighty river flowing from the mountains to the sea (giribhyah asamudrat). The abundance and tremendous force of its water had an enchanting impact on the minds of the poets who repeatedly described it as: 'abounding in waters' - maho-arnah; 'flowing rapidly' - pra-sasre; 'moving faultlessly' - akuvari; 'possessing unlimited strength' - yasyah amah ananto; 'roaring' - charati roruvat, and 'fierce' - ghora. ~ Thus, the realistic picture in the Rig Veda is that of a mighty and highly glorified river named SarasvatI descending from the Himalayas (manifestation, personification or embodiment of the Himalayas - Himalaya-putri, an allusion to Devi Parvati?) [Parvat = mountain; Parvati = of the mountains. However, is this 'parvat' a reference to the Himalayas or Mandar Parvat (Mt. Meru) or both?] ... The river is said to have disappeared at a place called Vinasana (literally 'disappearance'), though many believe it still flows below the ground. | The River SarasvatI very likely is an allegoric river. sarasam asmi sagarah ~ can also mean: the SarasvatI and the Sindhu are one, inseparable. BG 10.24: || sarasam asmi sagarah || sarasam indicates SarasvatI. Sagarah refers to Sindhu Sagara (the A. Sea was earlier known as Sindhu Sagara). Asmi means, I am or is. Thus, SarasvatI (aka the Krishna-avatara) is Sindhu (Samudradeva). In other words:  Devi Lakshmi/Bhudevi (aka the Krishna-avatar) is Garbodakshayi Vishnu (reclining on the 'ocean of Garbha'). While Samudradeva (Devi SarasvatI) is Ksirodakshayi Vishnu (who reclines on the Shesh on Kshir Sagar - Sindhu Sagara). ~ And so, Devi Lakshmi/Bhudevi (aka the Krishna-avatar) is the avatara (manifestation - with earthly form) of the Param-atma (Ksirodakshayi Vishnu, Samudradeva, Devi SarasvatI - the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being who has no earthly form or gender).

The concept of "Hiranyagarbhah" (Sanskrit: Hiraṇyagarbha): Hiranya = diamond. Satyajit Ray's 'Hirak Rajar Deshe' ('In the land of the Diamond king')? Manipura? Garbha = womb. Hiranyagarbha can also mean: One who dwells in the womb (garbhah) of the world (Hiranya). This being is Svayambhu - uncreated or Self-manifested Being. | However, can "Hiranyagarbhah" also mean, the 'diamond' born from the womb? And if so, is this 'diamond' the real 'koh-i-noor'? Personification/manifestation of 'kundalini' and/or of the final state of  Kundalini 'Fire'? BG 10.28: sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ ~ "and of serpents (implying the complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of kundalini energy) I am Vāsuki". [Vasuki = the gentle and complete 'awakening' of the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone) at the base of the spine. "Vasuki" can thus also indicate the crown chakra or Sahasrara chakra - the highest chakra. In the final state of the Kundalini 'Fire' - when kundalini passes through the top of the head, at the fontanel area, when the kundalini reaches the Sahasrara (the 7th chakra or crown chakra - the highest chakra) it (allegorically) shines forth like a diamond disc/chakra (symbolically depicted by brilliant white). [Refer link - for Kundalini 'Fire', Sahasrara chakra, two-petalled lotus and Manas-sarovara.] ~ "Vasuki" could also be the allegoric churning "rope" - is this an allusion to Shikhandee? - (wound around Mt. Meru, rather, a part of it - Mandar Parvat supported on the back of the Kurma-[tortoise]-avatar - the second avatara of the Dasavatara) in the samudra-manthan or Kshira-sagara manthan ('churning of the ocean of milk') stories. BG 10.23: || meruh sikharinam aham || ~ "and of mountains I am Meru." It is an allegoric mountain, can also be an allegory for the process of kundalini awakening ~ intellectual manthan.] | Hiranyagarbhah is the term used in the Vedanta for the "creator" [Garbodakshayi Vishnu - the one who reclines on the 'ocean of Garbhah' (implying 'womb'; in other words: 'born of the womb' - with earthly form - implying avatara). ~ Therefore, this Vishnu is the physical Vishnu (with earthly form - saakar; visible to mortal eyes - vyaktah) ~ Devi Lakshmi/Bhudevi aka the Krishna-avatar aka Kalika. [If we understand this, we will also understand what the cosmic trimurti of SarasvatI-Lakshmi-Parvati implies.] Thus, Garbodakshayi Vishnu is the Vishnu in gross body (sthula sharira).] | Satyajit Ray's 'Hirak Rajar Deshe' ('In the Land of the Diamond King') is most interesting. Goopi Gayen says "Baro kashte pawa gyachhe Keshto" (song: Paye PoRi Baghmama). A white tiger is seen.

Besides, a diamond eye (Rudraksha or eye of Rudra? The (symbolic) Third Eye, or the third eye chakra? Refer link) is a constant presence. [Sanskrit: rudrākşa = rudra and akşa = eye. Rudraksha and Virupaksha are non-different. Virupaksha = with oblique eyes. Lokkhi-tyara also means: with oblique eyes. Lokkhi = Lakshmi.]

Tagore's 'Suneel Saagorer Shyamal Kinaarey':

'Pathohaara Tumi Pathiik':

[Shukhey dhaldhal bibashaa bibhal = happy, smiling, hypnotic. Pagal nayaney = smouldering eyes. Tumi chao = gaze intensely.]

'Aami Chini Go Chini Tomaare': the iconic song from Satyajit Ray's 'Charulata'. Soumitra Chattopadhyay - perfectly cast as the young Tagore. Charu = moon, Lata = Vasuki. (In Bengali, a serpent is also called 'lata'). 'Charulata' also alludes to SarasvatI and Rudra. | The English translation is like embroidery seen from the back. | Soumitra's actions (gestures) are reminiscent of the mudra-s of Krishnaleela dance. | Charulata: Released: 17 April 1964: 50 years.]

"Not to have seen the cinema of Satyajit Ray means existing in the world without seeing the sun or the moon" - Akira Kurosawa.

Couldn't agree more. Joi Baba Maniknath! 


[Note: Devi Lakshmi/Bhudevi (aka the Krishna-avatar) is Garbodakshayi Vishnu (reclining on the 'ocean of Garbha' - also implying amniotic fluid, present in the womb (garbhah). | The famed Garba dance is part of Navaratri, associated with Devi Durga. The name is derived from the Sanskrit term Garbha ("womb"). Many traditional garbas are performed around a centrally lit lamp or a picture or statue of Devi Shakti. | Ksirodakshayi Vishnu (who reclines on the Shesh on Kshir Sagar) is the subtle or astral body - sukshma sharira (Devi SarasvatI). This Vishnu is Param-atma. Ksirodakshayi Vishnu lives in Svetadvipa - where there is an 'ocean' (samudra) of milk (kshira or kheer) ~ Sindhu Sagara (modern A. Sea). Incidentally, the current kalpa is known as "Svhetavaraha Kalpa". (Svheta = white. Varaha = the great one-tusked boar; Varaha - the third avatara of the Dasavatara is also regarded as the Supreme form of Sri Vishnu - the (cosmic) Preserver.)]

[Pic: Hiraker Raja Bhagaban. The Brilliant and versatile Utpal Dutt. Utpala = the rare blue lotus, Sanskrit: pushkara or Indivara. Is 'Hirak Rajar Desh' an allusion to Manipura? There is a diamond eye with star-shaped iris behind Utpal Dutt - Rudraksha?] | Master auteur Satyajit Ray's adaptation of Puss in Boots in "Goopy Gayen Bagha Bayen" and "Hirak Rajar Deshe" is top-class. He also incorporated the *Sleeping Beauty analogy and possibly 'Humpty Dumpty' and, perhaps, even a whiff of Tagore's 'Red Oleanders'. Rather, Hirak Rajar Deshe ('In the Land of the Diamond King') brilliantly captures the essence of Tagore's "Where the mind is without fear [...]" (Refer link.) | Jantarmantar Ghaar, magajdholai (brainwashing) etc is a reference to intellectual regimentation, straitjacketing, cynical or moribund aspects, ennui, tardiness, stagnation, narrow or blinkered world-view, and so on (~ the proverbial "dreary desert sand of dead habit"). 

*In Sleeping Beauty the princess was cursed by the evil fairy Maleficent, who foretold that on her 16th birthday, she would prick her finger on a spinning wheel's spindle and die. [Somewhat similar to the supposed curse on Dasarath?] | Incidentally, Tagore was never taken by the spinning wheel. He did not agree that spinning a wheel could bring about a great personal improvement. To him, spinning a wheel consists of endlessly turning the wheel of an antiquated machine with a minimum of imagination and a maximum of boredom.

Spinning wheel is not to be confused with the Kalachakra ('Wheel of Time'), the pinnacle of Buddhist wisdom, nor should it be misconstrued for the Buddhist Dharma Chakra (found on our national flag). The fabled Buddhist land or mythical kingdom of Shambhala is a mystical kingdom that guards the most sacred spiritual teachings of the world, including the Kalachakra ('Wheel of Time'), the pinnacle of Buddhist wisdom. [Note: The correct spelling is cakra, though pronounced with a ch. The word was also a metaphor for the sun, which "traverses the world like the triumphant chariot of a cakravartin." | A Chakravartin (Sanskrit: Cakravartin) is a 'wheel-turning' king - chakravarti-raja - a wise and benevolent ruler, and an ideal king... for whom dharma (here, the duties and responsibilities of a ruler) and karm-yog (tangible actions - for the larger/collective good, progress, etc) gained primacy.]

[Pic: The Lion Capital of Emperor Ashoka.] | The Ashoka Pillar is the symbol of India. India's national emblem is a rendering of a sculpture erected by Samraat Aśoka in the third century B.C. The emblem shows three lions mounted on an abacus decorated with a bull, a wheel and a galloping horse. Below it appear the words: Satyameva Jayate - "Truth alone triumphs." | The Aśoka Pillar is at Sarnath - place of Sri Gautam Buddh's first sermon. Originally a wheel (Wheel of Dharma, Ashoka Chakra, a wheel with **24 spokes) was placed over the lion capital and was mounted on a stone pillar near Dhamek Stupa, Sarnath. It has four back-to-back Indian lions. Below this are representations of a lion, an elephant, a horse and the bull. The pillar bears three inscriptions in Brahmi script. [There is a replica of the Ashoka pillar at Wat U Mong near Chiang Mai, Thailand, built by King Mangrai in the 13th century.] The great Mauryan Emperor Aśoka - a benevolent ruler and an able administrator - is also known as: Priyadarshi or Piyadasi. [Pharaoh may have been a variation of Priyadarshi, which means: pleasant-looking or blessed by the Eternal Divine Being (Param-atma). It could even mean: one who traversed the path show by the Eternal Divine Being.]

** The Gayatri Mantra, also known as Savitr Mantra, is a 24-syllable hymn from the Rig Veda; it is one of the most auspicious and oldest of mantras. The auspicious Gayatri Mantra is also considered one of the most universal and greatest of  mantras. ~ BG 10.35: || gāyatrī chandasām aham || ~ "I am Gayatri mantra among the Vedic mantras."


The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being (Param-atma, Primordial Being) is eternal and uncreated - Svayambhu - Self-manifested Being.

The Upaṇiṣad calls it the Soul of the Universe or Brahmn. | Soul of the Universe = Param Vishva Atma - the motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe. [Atma is energy, and hence has no earthly form or gender. Therefore it.]

The Bhagavata says || eko vai nārāyaṇa āsīn na brahmā na īśāno nāpo nāgni-samau neme dyāv-āp ṛthivī na nakṣatrāṇi na sūryaḥ || ~ "In the beginning of the creation there was only the Primal/Primeval Being Nārāyaṇa. There was no Brahmā, no Śiva, no water, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky, no sun."

|| nārāyaṇaḥ paro devas tasmāj jātaś caturmukhaḥ tasmād rudro 'bhavad devaḥ sa ca sarva-jñatāḿ gataḥ || ~ "Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme/Primordial/Primeval Being - from whom Brahmā was born, from whom Śiva was born." [Here Brahmā and Śiva refer to various aspects and to creation.] | Supreme/Primordial/Primeval Being = The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being - Purusha or Param-atma. 

And so, e.g. the Krishna-avatar departed or discarded the outer shell or mortal coil - Krishna deha visarjan. [Words like 'death,' etc is never used. The Eternal Divine Being cannot die.] There are two aspects to the Eternal Cosmic Being: the metaphysical and the physical (avatara) i.e. the metaphysical Param-atma, and the earthly form or manifestation (avatāra). Once the outer shell is discarded, the avatara reverts to Param-atma. [Param-atma has no earthly form or gender, since atma is energy. This Being belongs to all - as the Creator, Cosmic Ruler and Cosmic Teacher. The Param-atma is also adhaataa (above whom there is no other).]

BG: 10.6: || maharsayah sapta purve catvaro manavas tatha mad-bhava manasa jata || ~ "The seven great sages (the Sapta-Rishi) and before them the four other great sages (Sanaka, Sanandan, Sanatana and Sanat, collectively known as the four Kumaras) and the Manu-s (law-givers) come from Me, born from My mind (manasa-jata or brain-child)."

It is a square seal depicting a deity with three faces, seated in yogic position on a throne, with the hands resting on the knees, wearing bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress. Five symbols of the Indus script (hieroglyphs) appear on either side of the headdress, which is made of two outward projecting curved horns, with two upward projecting points. The horned headdress has a branch with three prongs or peepal leaves emerging from the center. 

The heels are pressed together and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne (vajrasana?). The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals. The seal may not have been fired, but the stone is very hard. A grooved and perforated boss is present on the back of the seal.

This seal (probably) depicts Garbodakshayi Vishnu.

The three faces: keshavah - one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva-Rudra): Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram.

The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals.

BG 10.28: || dhenunam asmi kamadhuk || ~ "among cows I am the surabhi" (also known as kamadhenu - the allegoric "wish-fulfilling cow" ~ possibly a metaphor for prosperity, progress, auspiciousness, luck etc.) ~ Rivers and cows are often poetically correlated in the Rig Veda. Devi SarasvatI is also known as "Varadey Kaamarupinee" implying kamadhenu (the allegoric "wish-fulfilling cow" - the fulfiller of wishes ~ indicative of 'Destiny' or 'Lady Luck'. Vara = wish). [The avatar is merely Devi SarasvatI in earthly form.] 

The horned headdress has a branch with three prongs or peepal leaves emerging from the center

BG 10.25: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "Of all trees I am the Peepal (asvatthah)" - fig tree (it can mean: banyan tree as well as the Peepal [aśvatthaḥ], or maybe both).

BG 10.27: || narāṇāḿ ca narādhipam || ~ "and among humans I am the monarch" (Cakravartin). 

[For a Cakravartin, dharma and karm-yog gained primacy. | The central concepts of dharma and karm-yog elude translation. It is performative (karmic). It has to be experienced to be understood, since it lies beyond the domain of scriptural description or academic definition (terminologies, etc).]

The peepal tree (the Bodhi tree, the 'tree of enlightenment') or the transpersonal World Tree is the personification of Sri Vishnu/Keshava/Narayana/Hari. The Bodhi tree, the Tree of Enlightenment, is also the symbol of Bhagavan Sri Gautam Buddh's message in general (since he had overcome his human boundaries [petty, mundane, shallow or selfish aspects] and become one with the world spirit ~ Supreme or highest Enlightenment or the stage where nirvana is attained). The holy fig tree therefore, holds a very important place in Indian civilization (be it with respect to faith, medicinal and social point of views), and hence is worthy of worship. It is the tree of eternal life. The ashvattha symbolizes the continuity of life because the tree itself lives and grows for hundreds of years. The heart-shaped leaves on long, thin stems shimmer easily in a light breeze. This sacred tree stands for wisdom, knowledge, enlightenment, happiness, prosperity, peace, longevity and good luck. Every peepal tree is a reservoir of oxygen. People who stay near it have a plentiful supply of oxygen. This majestic tree gives ample shade to humans and animals alike. It is also home to a lot of birds and insects. The holy fig tree has medicinal properties as well.

Ashvatha literally means, "Where horses stood" (ashva + tha). [Is horse or ashva a reference to Unicorn?] In Sanskrit, this tree is known as Ashvattha, Bodhivriksha and Plaksha. This tree represents the entire cosmos: 'Shva' in Sanskrit means tomorrow, 'a' indicates negation, and 'tha' means one that stands or remains. Hence, Ashvatha can indicate: "One which does not remain the same tomorrow" (lack of stasis/stagnation), or the universe itself. The Ashvatha tree is quite remarkable because it grows both upwards as well as vice versa. The branches themselves morph into roots, so even if the original tree decays and perishes, its branches underneath are young and continue to enclose the parent. This eternal life of the Peepal tree has inspired many Indian philosophers; this tree has its own symbolic meaning of enlightenment and peace... all of which has enriched Sanaatan Dharma. In the Upanishads, the fruit of the peepal is thus used as an example to explain the difference between the body and the soul. The body (the outer shell or mortal coil) is like the fruit which, being outside, feels and enjoys things, while the soul (jiva-atma) is like the seed, which is inside and therefore witnesses things. | Tree of Roots above; branches below; this Ashvattha is reputed to be imperishable; whose leaves are the Vedas; One who knows this is a knower of all the vedas. [Kathopanishad and the Srimad Bhagavad Gita.]

Popularly known as the Pashupati Seal. ~ This seal depicts a three-faced figure seated in yogic position, wearing bangles on both arms. A pair of bullhorns crowns the head. A rhino, a buffalo, an elephant and a tiger surround this figure. Under the throne are two deer.

The three faces: keshavah - one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva-Rudra), implying Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram. 

In Sanaatan Dharmic thought, the bull or Vrisha (also Vṛṣabha) represents Dharma (courage of convictions, adherence to one's karm for the larger good, sattvic or noble aspects/qualities etc). The illustrious god of gods (Mahadeva) is known as Vrisha Uttamam (Supreme Dharma or personification of dharma). However, could this figure also represent the Rishabha-avatar (one of the 24 avatars)? ~ Rishabha or Rshabha is derived from Vṛṣabha or Vrishabha, the great bull. The Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being is called Vṛṣabha (Vrishabha) - the Great Bull. ~ The Supreme Lord (Eternal Cosmic Being) is also known as Vrishaakritih (embodiment or personification of Dharma) or Vrishaparvaa and Dharmadhyaksha - Lord of Dharma (Supreme Dharma - for whom dharma gains primacy). | Various Indus glyphs appear on either side of the headdress. The glyphs also show a fish (matsya - the first avatara/manifestation of the Dasavatara?) ~ A rhino (indicative of one-horned or eka-shringa ~ implying the real Manipura?), a buffalo (mahisasura-mardini?), an elephant (signifying elephant-head or Sri Ganesh - indicative of a set of qualities, that if imbibed, would help in overcoming all sorts of odds or obstacles in the path of dharma? Elephant - implying Vighna Vinashak or Vignesh - the remover of obstacles in the path of dharma or actions for the larger good?) and a tiger (to depict valiance, courage of convictions?) surround the yogi figure. Under the throne are two deer (signifying 'destiny' and/or the Orion constellation?) ~ The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga (The Deer).

BG 10.35: || māsānāḿ mārga-śīrṣo 'ham ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "Of months I am Mārgaśīrṣa [November-December], and of seasons I am spring."

Agrahāyaṇa or Mārgaśīrṣa [November-December]: Since Vedic times, this month is known as Mārgaśīrṣa after the Nakṣatra (asterisms) Mṛgaśiras. [Note: The aligning of this name with the Mṛgaśiras Nakṣatra, gives rise to speculation that this name may have been given when the sun was near Orion at the time of vernal equinox, i.e. around 7000 years ago.] | Kālabhairava Aṣṭamī (or Kālabhairava Jayanti) falls on Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa Aṣṭamī of the month of Mārgaśīrṣa (also spelled Mṛgaśira/Mrigashīrsha ~ November-December). On this day it is said that Lord Rudra-Śiva appeared on earth in the manifestation (avatāra) as Śrī Kālabhairava. [In Sanskrit, Kāla or kaalah = time (can also indicate Mahakali or Kalika); Bhairava = the Primordial Sound, the Shabda Brahmn - pranavah/Omkaara/pranava naad - very likely a reference to the voice of the Avatara (the Primordial Being in earthly form); OM or AUM - is very auspicious. | Maha Vishnu (Absolute OM or Absolute Brahmn) - the impersonal [nirguna - without qualities], unmanifested [avyaktah], niraakar [without form] Cosmic Light or Divine Effulgence - the self-existent impersonal spirit, the Divine Essence, from which all things emanate, by which they are sustained, and to which they return is Omprakash. The Avatara is Omswaroop. ~ All creation-related work is the work of Fire (i.e. Cosmic Fire - Cosmic Light, Light Divine - Divine Effulgence or Brahm-jyotih - the impersonal, unmanifested Primal Creative Energy ~ Maha Vishnu. 'Maha Vishnu' is thus revered as the Supreme Creator (Srashtaa). Maha Vishnu (Karanodakshayi Vishnu - reclining on the 'causal ocean' or the Karanodak/Karana Ocean) - originally a cloudlike darkness in one corner of the spiritual sky in 'Vaikuntha' - from which the material world (Material Nature or Manifested Cosmos) is created; is this a reference to 'dark energy' or invisible 'dark matter' - Brahm-jyotih or Primal Creative Energy (also known to our ancients as Aadi Shakti or Kali?) ~ of which all jiva-atma, etc is a part?) | The impersonal cosmic trimurti of 'Brahma-Vishnu-Shivah' is simply the names of the three aspects of the cosmic phenomenon of Creation, Maintenance and Dissolution, respectively.]

Mrigashīrsha: Sanskrit mṛgaśiras (also spelled Mārgaśīrṣa/Mṛgaśira) - the *5th nakṣatra or lunar mansion - as used in Vedic astronomy and astrology, is the constellation Orion (also known as Kaalpurush, meaning: Timeless, Eternal or Ancient; kaal or kaalah = time, in Sanskrit). The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga/Mṛga (The Deer - possibly implying "destiny"). ~ The term Mṛgaśira is a composite of two Sanskrit words, mṛga meaning animal (can also mean: deer - symbolizing destiny) and śira meaning head or precisely, the top of the head. [In earlier times, perhaps events and aspects (including the commencement and impending "closure" of yugs etc) were conveyed (by the Param-atma) through the Orion Constellation (~ perhaps this is what our ancients referred to as 'daiva-vaani' or 'aakash-vaani'). And so, (maybe) the earlier emperors had great scholars (astronomers and astrologers) - who in turn (in a manner of speaking) had their eyes riveted to the sky.]

*The first two carana/pada (quarters) of this nakṣatra are part of Vṛṣabha Rāśi or Taurus (bull). [Dharma (dharmic principles, courage of convictions, adherence to one's karm for the larger good, sattvic or noble aspects/qualities etc) is denoted in Sanaatan Dharmic thought by the bull (Vṛṣabha). The illustrious god of gods is Vrisha Uttamam (Supreme Dharma or personification of dharma).] The latter half of this star belongs to Mithuna Rāśi (Gemini - the twins ~ Sridevi/Bhudevi).

BG 10.35: || ṛtūnāḿ kusumākaraḥ || ~ "and of seasons I am spring." [Spring = sarasa ~ pool, fountain, knowledge stream, and SarasvatI; spring can also indicate Makara Sankranti and the Nandan-kanan (the fabled Garden of Eden?)]     

The Indus seal depicting twin unicorns: possibly representing Sridevi and Bhudevi. [Aka the Krishna-avatar.] Could also represent Puruṣa and Prākṛti: the nirakaar (without earthly form - since atma has no gender or earthly form; atma is energy), avyaktah (not visible to mortal eyes) Param-atma (the Supreme Hari - Devi SarasvatI). Aka Puruṣa. And the saguna (with qualities), saakar (with earthly form), vyaktah (visible to mortal eyes), savikaar (sentient) Prakriti (Bhudevi - 'Mother' Earth or 'Mother' Nature - Vasudeva/Vasudha/Vasundhara/Dharitri) - and Sri Devi - Devi Lakshmi. Aka the Krishna-avatar. In other words: Hari-krishna. [Sridevi and Bhudevi are non-different ~ Mithuna Rāśi (Gemini - the twins).] | Puruṣa and Prākṛti probably indicate the avayktah - metaphysical (the subtle or astral body - sukshma sharira Param-atma) and the vyaktah - sthula sharira, with gross body (avatara). In other words: the metaphysical (sukshma sharira) Kshirodakshayi Vishnu (Param-atma) and the earthly manifestation (avatāra - in sthula sharira) Garbodakshayi Vishnu - Sri Kalabhairava or PaTalaH Bhairava (Sridevi/Bhudevi aka the Krishna-avatar). (PaTalaH = pale-red in Sanskrit. Refer link - for the pale-red lotus (known as padma in Sanskrit).]

The Krishna-avatara is Hari or Hari-Krishna (haritaH or PalashaH means green in Sanskrit). Haritah implies association with nature. ~ We say, 'Mother' Earth or 'Mother' Nature (Dharitri Mata or Bhudevi). ['Mother' or Mataram is a respectful honorific.]

There is a fish-shaped glyph, a triangle and a wheel. Kalachakra ('Wheel of Time'), the pinnacle of Buddhist wisdom? *Nine Peepal leaves are also seen.

BG 10.25: || aśvatthaḥ sarva-vṛkṣāṇāḿ || ~ "Of all trees I am the Peepal (asvatthah)" - fig tree (it can mean: banyan tree as well as the Peepal [aśvatthaḥ], or maybe both).

*Are the 9 Peepal leaves indicative of the Navaratna? What is the Kaustubham (divine jewel - believed to be adorning the neck of Sri Vishnu who lives in the Kshira Sagara)? [Sri Vishnu is also known as Kaustubha (one who wears the Kaustubham). | Vishnu is also Srivatsankita or SrIvatsa-vakshAh, the one who bears the sign of Srivatsa. The Śrīvatsa mark on Vishnu's chest, symbolizes Devi Lakshmi as well as the eternal aspect. So, is this Vishnu - Srivatsankita - a reference to the Garbodakshayi Vishnu aka the Krishna-avatar (Devi Lakshmi and Bhudevi)? [The Krishna-avatar also bears the mark of Srivatsa.] Is the eternal aspect a reference to the Param-atma - Ksirodakshayi Vishnu (Devi SarasvatI/Satya/Eternal Truth/Eternal Divine or Cosmic Being)? Is the Srivatsa mark indicative of the Kaustubham?] What is the exceptionally lustrous Symantaka mani (associated with the Sun-god/Surya-deva and the Krishna-avatar)? Is it the 'Seemanto-Heera' of the Byomkesh titles? Is the Krishna-avatar - the manifestation/personification/embodiment of the effulgent Sun-god/Surya-deva/Savitr - the Syamantaka mani Herself? The real Koh-i-Noor? BG 10.28: sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ ~ "and of serpents (implying the complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of kundalini energy) I am Vāsuki". [Personification/manifestation of 'kundalini' and/or the final state of Kundalini 'Fire'? ~ In the final state of the Kundalini 'Fire' - when kundalini passes through the top of the head, at the fontanel area, when the kundalini reaches the Sahasrara (the 7th chakra or crown chakra - the highest chakra) it (allegorically) shines forth like a diamond disc/chakra (symbolically depicted by brilliant white).] ... What is the philosophers' stone (said to be capable of turning base metals such as lead or iron into gold or silver)? Also believed to be an elixir of life, useful for rejuvenation. Is this 'elixir of life' an allusion to the metaphoric piyush of the samudra-manthan stories? Is samudra-manthan or kshirasagara-manthan ('churning of the ocean of milk') - indicative of medha (memory, clarity of thought, knowledgeable) or intellectual manthan? Is the philosophers' stone the same as cintā-maṇI or cintāmaṇi-ratna? Is Cintāmaṇi (or the Chintamani Stone) the same as Kaustubham? | The 108 Krishna mantra: OM Srivatsa Kaustubha Dharaya Namaha. SrI vishNu sahasranAmam: Om SrIvatsa vakshase namah. SrI vishNu purANam: SrIvatsa samsthAna dharam anante ca samASritam (1.22.67). In this description, the SrIvatsa mark is described as the pradhAna seated in the Eternal. The chief principle of things, (pradhAna) is seated on the Eternal, as the SrI vatsa mark. [Therefore, is the SrIvatsa mark indicative of Brihaspati - Devaguru?] SrImad bhAgavatam (12.11.10) where the SrIvatsa mark is described as the reflection of the Kaustubha mani that bhagavAn wears, representing the Eternal Being's Atma-jyoti: kaustubha vyapadeSena svAtma jyotih bibharti ajah | tat-prabhA vyApinI sAkshAt SrIvatsam urasA prabhuh || | What is the Buddhist mańipadma or maṇipadme? "Jewel in the Lotus"? Or is it a reference to the gentle and complete 'awakening' or 'rousing' of the living and conscious energy - kundalini - the latent spiritual energy that lies dormant in the sacrum bone (a large, triangular bone: 'Adrishyo trikon' of the Byomkesh titles? allegoric 'manas-sarovara'? Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake'?) at the base of the spine. ~ To raise the coiled serpentine, your sleeping divinity, from the lowermost bone of your body, the mańipadma, the lowermost seat, to elevate the sleeping divinity in your body to the status, or to the stance, of Parama Puruśa. | Is Manasa Devi an allusion to Vasuki? Is Phani Manasa a variant of this? Manasa or Mansa is derived from 'manasa' or 'manas' implying the (cosmic, universal) mind and/or wish. Therefore, 'Vasuki' is none other than Devi SarasvatI.] 

Avatar comes from the Sanskrit 'Avatarana' or 'Avatirna' (manifest or descent of the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being [Param-atma] into earthly form - sthula sharira). Avatar = manifestation. 

Tagore's 'Aanandaloke Mangalaaloke' is sublime. Bide in joy, glow auspicious, reign in grace, truth beauteous. Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram. ~ Universe in celebration, a world prays to thee, a world celebrates thee. | Sat/Satya (Shaashvata, the Sanaatana Purusha) = the Eternal (Ultimate/Primordial/Primeval) Truth; in other words: the Eternal Divine/Cosmic Being - the higher power embedded in the fabric of the universe and responsible for its continuing existence and operation. Sundar or Sundaram = sattvic and auspicious aspects. [It is also a reference to the Avatara - the Param-atma in earthly form.] Sivam = auspiciousness; one who is eternally auspicious and pure (inner perfection; dharmic principles, inner joy, sattvic aspects/qualities and tranquility). [Rabi Thakur is the pride of this world, his translations into English are like embroidery seen from the back. He possessed a unique ability to turn a phrase; his genius lies in his choice of words and ability to make the words flow together.]

'Aanandaloke Mangalaaloke':

Leela = events through which the avatara imparts lessons, guidance and/or sets examples for others to imbibe, and/or takes longer term measure(s) to roll back, mitigate and/or curb unpleasant aspects - for a better society to emerge, as well as to elevate the human consciousness (for introspection, thoughtful action, to overcome egocentricity, etc). Leela is (therefore) also part of course correction. As the cosmic teacher, the avatara imparts lessons or instructs through acharan (own behaviour, words and actions). That is the mark of a true guru. It is for humanity to comprehend the lessons imparted. The avatara may also bring to the fore ignored or undiscussed aspects of human nature or social issues and so on - for people to see, introspect and discuss... and emerge with organic and sustainable corrective measures. When avatars arrive, they bring forth or accelerate karmas - thus, that which may have been latent comes to the fore. ~ The avatars also hold a mirror to society, and therefore create situations - opportunity - that bring forth both the positive (good, enduring, essential) and the negative (trivial, transient, unpleasant and/or degenerative aspects that require corrective measures) - to urge/advise humanity into (collective) introspection ~ so that it leads to a natural process of unraveling (from ignorance to discovery and from reformation to [organic] transformation). Avatars are also reformers and endeavour to bring about (long-lasting, organic) change vis-a-vis regressive or negative perception or mindset. E.g. Sri Ram. | There is no alternative to sustained karm-yog (tangible and sustainable actions) to bring forth a positive turnaround, mere royal decrees would not have achieved anything, especially when well-entrenched perception(s) or social conditioning is involved.

[The Param-atma descends in earthly form (avatara) to experience, to teach (through words and actions - acharan), to set examples, to hold a mirror to society (to dispel confusion, indifference, ignorance, ennui and so on - for clear-eyedness to emerge), to bring to the fore ignored/undiscussed aspects of human nature or issues plaguing society (to reform - to change perception or mindset), to share the larger vision (goals and objectives), set priorities, provide guidance and reset or correct the course (organic change or root-and-branch transformation and evolution; in other words: to rejuvenate the doctrine of dharma and karm-yog). | The Param-atma comes down to the level of humans - since humankind does not have the same level of intelligence, wisdom, caliber, sagacity, discerning abilities etc.]

The purpose of the avatara is to help and guide humankind - whenever adharma - negativism or malevolence becomes a bane or gains the upper-hand (i.e. when negativism, confusion, avarice, ignorance, etc becomes a bane). BG 4.7 || yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham || 

yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati = whenever and wherever there is an alarming decline or degeneration (glanir bhavati) in dharma (dharmic principles, sattvic aspects). Bharata = addressing Arjun - who belonged to the Bharatvansh - the lineage (vansh) of Bharata (Dushyant's son and/or descendent of Puru - Yayati's youngest-born). abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham = only then I manifest Myself (indicative of avatara - earthly form). [Bharata could also imply Bharatavarsha.]

BG 4.8 || paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge-yuge || 

paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam = to curb malevolence/negativities (including the negativism that resides in the hearts and minds of humankind, viz., lethargy, apathy, perfunctoryness, ignorance, moribund discourse, finger-pointing, inertia, and other members of that brood), for the collective good of humanity, sambhavami yuge-yuge = I manifest Myself (sambhavami) yuge-yuge - yug/era after yug/era (time and time again). The focus/objective is to revive/rejuvenate dharma - sattvic or noble aspects/qualities (dharma-samsthapanarthaya) and karm-yog (tangible actions, including selfless/nishkam actions - individual or collaborative - for the larger /collective good ~ for a progressive and vibrant society to emerge)

... Whenever humankind is bewildered - unable to find a solution or direction, or is hurtling towards the proverbial 'quicksand' (quagmire)... only then, the Eternal Divine Being (Param-atma) manifests (avatara - in earthly form) - to stem the degeneration/downward slide, to stabilize and to revive or rejuvenate (i.e. to bring forth a change of course or a turn-around). To prevent a collapse of basic structure of mankind (or to pull it out from quagmire), and/or to mitigate unpleasant aspects. | In other words: the avatars manifest themselves to help, provide guidance - to correct or reset the course. 

The seal bearing the motif of a 3-headed animal representing the bull, unicorn and goat is the seal of Dvarkadheesh Vasudeva Krishna (also known as Keshavah). [Vasudeva = Deity/deva of the Earth (Vasundhara).] The symbology of the Bull: represents Dharma (sattvic aspects, courage of convictions - for the larger good) in Sanaatan Dharmic thought, as well as insignia of the Vrishni. (Vasudeva Krishna, the Lord of Mathura and Dvarka, is also known as Varshneya). The Unicorn (eka-shringa or one-horned horse) is imagery, the 'one-horn' signifies blue lotus (krishna kamal), implying rarity or uniqueness. The goat probably indicates Aries (or maybe, the Mṛgaśira - the constellation Orion - also known as Kaalpurush, meaning: Timeless, Eternal or Ancient; kaal or kaalah = time, in Sanskrit; can also mean: Mahakali or Kalika). ~ The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga/Mṛga (The Deer - probably implying "destiny"). 

Keshavah: One whose rays illumine the cosmos (possibly indicative of: motive power and guiding spirit behind the mathematically precise universe; also highest cosmic intelligence [cosmic mind], and supreme or highest enlightenment - the stage where nirvana is attained, the state of a Buddha). Keshavah also means: one who is the three: kah (Brahma), ah (Vishnu) and Isa (Shiva). [Implying 'Satyam-Sivam-Sundaram'.] | Buddha means 'the Enlightened One'. [It implies Supreme or Highest Enlightenment.]

The Srimad Bhagavad Gita is an integrated knowledge stream; it is the enlightening words and wisdom emanating from the greatest of karm-yogi, who is also the highest cosmic intelligence (Feluda's Gyanpeeth and 'Dhakuria Lake'). The greatest of guru. It is soaked in supreme nectar ('amrit' - pijush/piyush). Reading and reflection (adequate cogitation) will lead to comprehension; one can then understand the larger canvas, the greater whole, the big vision (patchy reading or reading it by fits and starts will not do). This way, one can also solve the many puzzles and riddles. And once it is transcribed, or the solution is arrived at, that's it. However, applying logic is essential. One will have to eschew frivolity or trivial aspects and take a broader/holistic view (like the swan [hamsah] that is supposed to possess the ability to separate the water from the cream (in milk). The hamsa's ability to separate milk and water symbolizes the need to intellectually discriminate or differentiate between positive (enduring/durable/essential) aspects and negative/unpleasant (evanescent/ephemeral/trivial) aspects.

BG 10.32: || vādaḥ pravadatām aham || ~ "I am logic of the logician." Can also be interpreted as "and among logicians I am the conclusive truth". 

There are various kinds of books of knowledge, such as the four Vedas, their six supplements, the Vedanta-sutra, books of logic, the Puranas, etc. Adhyatma-vidya, spiritual knowledge - in particular, the Vedanta-sutra - represents the Krishna-avatara. | Among logicians there are different kinds of argument (logic). Supporting one's argument with evidence that also supports the opposing side is called jalpa. Merely trying to defeat one's opponent is called vitanda. [The word vitanda indicates that a logician, not touching the main point or establishing own point of view, merely tries to refute others' viewpoints. It is argument for the sake of argument. Also known as nigraha.] When one merely tries to divert attention by misinterpretation, one engages in chala| The actual conclusion is called vada (Sanskrit: vādaḥ). This conclusive truth (vādaḥ) is a representation of the Krishna-avatara (Hari-Krishna).


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